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Full text of "Scientific American Volume 56 Number 01 (January 1887)"

© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



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[Entered at the Post Office of New York, N. Y.. as Hecond Class Matter.] 



A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, ANl MANUFACTURES. 



Vol. tVI.-No. 

[trsw esniEs 



r-] 



NEW YORK, JANUARY 1, 1887. 



rPrlce lO Cent*. 
L^S.OO per Xear. 



A HOVXL FO&X 01? AJEBIAL VXflSEL. 

The aceoupanying engravtng' illustrates an aerl&l 
vessel and propelling ■wheel, the inveatiau of Mr. 
MosesS. Cole, of Grey town, Nicaragua.Central America, 
eoDtaining many novel features ia the farm, con- 
struction, aad general arraDgetiicnt *f th« parts. It is 
olaiined that this vessel can be raist^d, lowered, 8t«ered, 
and propelled in any direction at the will of the pilot, 

The vessel is provided with a «entral compartment 
having suitable rooms for the accoiumodation of paa- 



sitiOD in line with the axis of the vessel to one side. 
The wheels are each mounted on a shaft having crank 
arms, 'Which receive a rotary motion from the main 
shaft by suitable connections. The end wheels stew 
the verael in any direction, and propel it ia a hori- 
zontal plane. The ends of the vessal are provided 
with valves, which permit of ventilating the eompart^ 
ment when the vessel is in motion and all the doors 
and windows in the wall are closed. - 
The wings of the propelling wheels are bo constFuct- 



ward motion ia obtained by the rotntion of the end 
wheels when placed in a,n axial position, but the ves- 
sel can deforced to execute any evolution desired by 
swinging one or both of these wheels sidewiae. To 
cause the vessel to descend, the motion, of the side 
wheels is reversed. 

The conneetions, through the medium of -which mo- 
tion is communicated from the motor in the shaft to 
the four sets of wheels, are well designed so as to insure 
the necessary strength combined with little weight. 




aengers and crew. On the top of the ceiling is se 
cured an inflated balUou of eemi-spheroidal form 
while to the floor is attached a similar balloon. Down- 
wardly through the flooc extends a hollow shaft in 
which is placed the Motive power for operating the 
driving wheels, and which'forms at its lower end the 
pilot house. The main driving shaft is placed trans-, 
versely across the floor, and is formed with a crank at 
its center, to which the uiotor i^ coupled. On each 
end of the shaft, and outside the inclosing wall of the 
oompartment, ia secured a w^ieel having several winga, 
which open and close automatically, according to 
circumstances ; these wheels serve to raise or lower 
the vessel Wheels similar in constrtjction are placed 
at the ends of the V«as«l, each being mounted on a 
fiume pivoted to the floor, and provided on its -inner 
end with a device fot swinging it from its central po- 



COLE^S HOVEL FOBM OF AEBIAL VESSEL. 

ed as to open through a certain -peM of the revolution I 
and close through the remainder. This important fea- 
ture is accomplished through the medium of cams, 
which, in connection with the rotating spokesor arms, 
operate sliding bars which op«n the wings and lock 
them in that position during a certain part of a revolu- 
tion. The wiogs are open only through one-%uarterof 
the entire revolution,and are completely closed through 
one-half, the remaining quarter being necessary forthe 
opening o( the wings and the closing, which latter id 
due to the resistance c^ the air. The wings consist of 
frames covered with canvas or other saitable material, 
and hinged to the arms ; the two parts of each wing 
can thns be opened so ae to lie in the same plane, or 
closed so as to re«t parallel with each other. 
, The tot&tioQ of the side wheels c»ase8 the vessel to 
BJBoend, sided by the b&Uooxig. A. forward or back. 



The arrangement of the parts for opening the wings is 
simple, eifeetive, and not liable to get out of order. 
The machinery, taken as a whole, may be made strong 
and effective without undue weight. 

^ ' # I »■ 

]P»tr«]euim lu Amsterdam. 

A huge iron reservoir is being built at a remote spot 
itt the outer harbor of Amsterdam, for the storage of 
petroleum. It will be nearly SS feet in diameter and 
of the same depth, and is calculated to hold 7,900,000 
liters of oil, or nearly 1,740,000 gallons. The petroleum 
will be brought direct from Russia in vessels specially 
constructed, and it will be pumped out at Amsterdam 
into the tank, thus saving the expense of filling and 
emptying casks and diminishing the risk of accidents. 
^ < o > * 

UwriL 1776, cotton spinning was performed by the 
hand-spioniqg wheel. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



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[January i, 1887. 



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NEW TORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1887. 



Conienla. 

(niuatraled articles are marked with as uterisk.) 



Aerial veiisel. novel, Cole'ii*, 

Baaket, wire, convertitile* 

Batt^rlert, &rTnur.clad* 

Boat, aut>B^rine new 

Brake, an^^hor. the — 

Breiikwater. Leixo 9, PortiiXal*.. 

BuslsesJ and IftrMBU 

Camera, packet,..,.- .,.,.... 

Cbame^on pictures 

<7b%KDioa1 expsriments, simple.... 

Oircouptini;. Kaitonbeck'e*. 

Car coupling. Sesbury's^ 

Cala. A, Jiowta prevent............ 

Conduits, underirrOund* 

Coa), artlflelaUiornrottas 

Cross. W«i., Oiascow 

Crystal ornamani 

Cultivator, Impmved, Bourne's*.. 

Dead, tbe>, preservation of* 

Dral n aire enterprise, Temarkat>le. 
Bxnlosion, boiler, remarliable. . . ■ 

Fireball, dancing 

Gas f fir ocean steamers 

Qreeahousea. air in 

urowtb without life 

iDTentlons. otrricuiturai 



Inventions, enfrineerlDf;. ...,.,...,. 11 

Inventions, index of. ...4. 11 

Inventions, miscellaneous .11 

Mat^neslum llftht.... ......,.:.,.., IQ 

Witro-dlycftrtne, Oestructlve ef. 

fectsof .. 7 

?1aDtit,patted,w«teTlDti,iiiiot«0D 7 

Platforms, rollirwV ...,, 8 

Scraper, flexible, Haelln^s* a 

Shaft, box on, now to cast a. ...... T 

Ships, hiring, to carry the fluic 2 

Ships, war. British two Dew 7 

Snakes, family of. remarkable,.,.. 7 

Snow melting*.. 4 

Stars, binary, masses and dla- 

tancea or... — 3 

Bteam propulsion, direct... 3 

St.ebmship G-reai^ Eastern* V 

ateel into copper, to convert...... ID 

Tape measure. Fountains*... 6 

Tool, outlining, Mackensle'a*,...., 6 
Tree* growth T)f, Curious*... ....... fl 

Vessel, aerial*. 1 

Watches, pendant stem for*.. 

Whales, captured, sixty,.,..,.,.... 1 
Whirlpool, moglo 10 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF 

SClENTlFiC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT 

For IbeWeek EudluK Jnnaary I, 1887. 

Price iO c«sl«. For sale by all newsdealers 

^AOI 
L APPLISn HATH BMATlCd.— Instrument for Dnwlar^lBbna/L/r-- 
By Prof. C. W. MacCord. Sc-D.— UJ, The Lemniscal*,?A. de<ini>- 
Cton of tbe Inatruinent and same oiAbaeurres dEawftf4$y'it.— ^Uluf. 
tuitions .....r,..,. ...,, Q160 

11, CHEMISTRY.— BoloMon— I.. peninjr by Pnrf/Tn,KfcN of the dtsons. 
sLon on this subject at t lie Birmingham u^tlb^f the Association 
for the Advancement of Science.— Statiiiaehl^ tbe problems to bfl 
solved in its connection .........>. sirs 

lU. ENOINESRiNO.-Beot'saaa !U6tor.— A' new engine, possessing 
the liood f eaturas of both the '"iTi* and Otto motors, glvlDi an Im- 
pulse at every stroke, and cgmpresalng the charge, yet havutg only 
one eyUnder.^i illustrations 0169 

Concrete in Harbor Wark.— A review of a nnmber of papers •n 
this subject, read at air«c«nt meetineof tbe British In stttutlon «f 
Civil Engineers.— lnt«reatiDK detaileas Co cost and methiHls of con- 
Bbuciinu 9188 

t^rictiun. -By Prof. H. 3. HELl.SHAW.-C*ntinuati*n of this im- 
nortanti eture.— Tbe most cemplet^ preaenCattan <%f the aubjeet 
eocessible.-l* IliuslraWons 9l«» 

Hydrauiii: Ucistinir Cover far Purifier Covers.— A much needed 
Improvement for use In gas works; fall aocountof tbe machine 
and Its work.— 1 illustration,.,.,...,.,.,...... sieo 

The Strength of Uly Wheels. — Calculation of the strength of 
wheels and the stresses they are subjected to.— The limit of aafety 
as regards speed.— The appUoatlon •! wrounht Iran bo pa 0268 

IV. HYI3IBNB ANDSANITATION.— Fifty Years of Sanitation.— At! 
Interesting review of tbe advance made in the health of tbe warld 
during theiast Sfty years 9174 

V. mIninq ENOIMBBRINQ.— Dnsuspected Dangers with rrioOonal 
Blectrtcify in Blasting.— By W. E. Iuish.— Tbe explosion of cnargea 
by Induction.— A aonnie ofgreat danger to miners.— Possible appli- 
cation of the phenomenon in naval warfare.— 1 Ulustratlon 9173 

VI. NATAL B.MOINKBRINO.-The St«ain»hlp Nulll Seounda.— An 
elaborate accauntof the largest freight steamer afloat, havlnga 
carrying capacity of 7.000 tons: attaining a speed of U knots on a 
coal consnmpiion of w tons aday i tbe trlpieexpanslon engines by 
which this extraordinary result is attained ; arrangement of bulb- 
heads, ventilatli^ apparatus, and other f eatttjea,- -6 Illustrations.. 3151 

VII. PHYatOS.— Pure ice and Snow,— Determination of the relative 
conductivity for heat of Ice and snow; tbe coefficient of expan- 
sion of ice at dUTerent temperatures .,.,..,..,.,..,..,.,. V173 

VUl. PHOTOGRAPHY.— Instantaneous Photography.- Note on M. 
Mafey^B recent remarkable worlE In photographing moving animals 

and hii^B ..,.,.... S161 

Telescopic PhotOMrraphy. — Apparatus for photographing distant 
obieots; varioos forms desoribed and lUuatrated ; views obt^ned,—^ 
5 illustrations 9159 

VL PHYSICS AND MBTBOROLOOY.— An Absolute Barometer.— A 
compact barometer, designed to aot OS a weather indlcacnr.— 1 11- 
InstroUoo.. Sin 

X. TECHNOLOGY.- SomeType Writers— their Origin andDssa.— By 
J. B, HULIMO.— An Interesting abstmctof the earlier Inrentlons la 
this tine ; the Mill, Thurber, Beach, Francis, and Hall inventionB ; 

flnctinstallmentnt this valuable article.— 2 iiiustrutions,.... iHAl 

Tbe First T^pe Writing Ujac^ine —The A. B. Beach type writer 
of iSi7; its conatmction folly deBctribed: the predecessor of all 
modern snccesafnl type writers; luteressing anticipation of tiie 
fBttDreaot tibe nunfliUMe ottliBpreaentdttT.-suiuMratloiu. 91S1 



HIBIH& SHIPS TO OASET THE 7LA0, 
Many naval offloers and Bhipping merchants have 
recently expressed tbeiilBelves in favor of BulasidiEicg a 
fleet of American-built steamerB, which in times of 
peace should carry the mails, and when war threatens 
be u6ed as commerce destroyers, trausports, and the 
tike. According to the proposition, the ships shoald 
be built after pl^ns prepared by the ^vy Depart- 
ment, these plans to anticipate the easy transformation 
of the ships into swift-footed cruisers, capable of carry- 
ing a battery of one or more guns. It is, of course, at 
once apparent that ships built to carry passengers and 
freight could not possess all the essential requirements 
even of light-armored cruisers, for they would be top- 
heavy for large gans, and the placing of the engines be- 
low the water line would interfere with eargoearrying ; 
but (here is reason to believe that they «o aid be so 
constructed a« to become valuable aids as auxiliaries 
to a fleet of regularly constructed fighting ships. 

The English transatlantic liners are regarded as a 
valuable addition to the British navy, into the service 
of which they may at any time be called ;' and 
the French, imitating the English plan, have recently 
built some splendid vessels for their merchant service, 
with a careful eye to their nse in tii»e of war. These 
ships — La Bretagne, La Bourgogne, and La Gascogne 
—are now plying between this port and Havre, and 
others are being rapidly put together at the yards at 
Saint Nazaire and Saint Chamond. They are built in 
the strongest possible manner for such constructions, 
and are so swift of foot as to have already become 
formidable rivals to the English "greyhounds." 

Without going into the question of the desirability 
of subsidies for ships, such a fleet as that proposed 
wonld, it must be said, be an important and a valuable 
acquisition. It is not, however, easy to see how, as 
the friends of the project allege, these ships would, to 
any appreciable extent, encourage or lead to the build- 
ing of a sea-going merchant fleet. 

It is not likely that the appearance of these ships on 
the ocean would lead to the building of others, unless 
the subsidy scheme were extended to reach them, and 
this would, of course, be simply hiring ships to carry 
the American flag. It is not sentiment that prevents 
the American merchant from carrying his own floods. 
It is because hn finds he can have them carried by for- 
eigners cheaper than he can carry them himself. That 
is all. Knglish, Italian, and German crews are paid 
stuall wages, and are content to live upon cheap food. 
Add to this the fact that good freight st»ainers can be 
purchased abroad for much less than they cost^ and 
the futility of trying to compete with the foreign 
freighter is immediately obvious. Again, admitting the 
excellencB of native workmanship, it is not at all likely 
that our shipbuilders could, for some time to come at 
least, rival the English builders of iron and steel steam- 
ers, with theirysars of experience in such construction. 
The idea that we oould build steamers capable of ave- 
raging twenty-one statute miles an hour — faster, be it 
said, by a mile an hour than the average speed of the 
swiftest of the noble fleet now plyingacross the Atlan- 
tic — certainly seems to be preposterous and unworthy 
the serious consideration of a practical people. If there 
in any evidence to be had to sustain such an assertion, 
we should' like to know where it may be had. Yet 
;thos% vfao propose the plan under discussion say we 
ttUi and ought to do this. 

Here is a list of the fastest steamers afloat, and the 
average speed of each in statute miles: 

Gunard Line, Nfew York to Queenstown. — Number of 
miles per hour: TJitibria, 80 ; Servia, 18 ; Etruria, 19. 

Cunard Line, Boston to Queenstown. -^-Gallia, 15 ; 
Cephalonia, 14 ; Scythla, 14. 

Anchor One, New York to Glasgow. — Furnessia, 18 ; 
Ethiopia, 14 ; Devonia, 13. 

North German Xloyd, New York to Southampton.— 
Trave,,19 ; Saale, 18 ; Eider, 18. 

Hamburg Auterican Line, New York to Plymouth.— 
Hammonia, 19; Wieland, 19; Lessing, 19. 

American Lice, Philadelphia to Queenstown. — Indi- 
ana, IX 

Gaion Line, New Tork to Queenstown.— Aiaska, 18 ; 
Arfzona, 17 ; Wisconsin, 19. 

Inman Line, New York to Queenstown. — City of Ber- 
lin, 15 ; City of Chicago, 15 ; Baltic, 15. 

National Line, New York to Queenstown. — Amer- 
ica, 18. 

White Star line, New Tork to Queenstown, -Ger- 
manic, 17 ; Celtic, 15 ; Britannic, 17. 

General Transatlantic Line to Havre. — La Cham- 
pagne, 20 ; La Gascognev SO ; La Bourgogne, 20. 

Red Star Line, New York to Antwerp. — Noordland, 
14; Westemland^ 15?Rhynland, 14. 

This list was compiled by Superintendent of Foreign 
Mails Bell, and shows the average speed of the ocean 
steamers carrying the mails. • 

When ocean freighting is so brisk that an average of 
seven or eight per cent can be made on money invested 
in ships, after deducting' losses, or when a European 
war shall drive the English freighters from the seas, 
American merohants will no doubt try their hand at 
the business, but it is not likely that they will do so 
until that time comes. 



TIte Conteivadon of Foree. 

The subject taken by Mr. R. Howson, the president 
of the Cleveland Institution of Engineers, for his inau- 
gural address at the meeting of the Institution on Nov- 
ember 22 was "The Coiwervation of Force, and Some 
of Its Possibilities. " The author explained that all the 
natural powers wh^h were employed depended upon 
the development ofpotent or static energy into the 
energy of motion. When that motion had been util- 
ized, the energy was lost, and could not be recovered 
except by a renewal of its source. The principle was 
tra^id in the case of falling water, the steam engine, in 
voltaic electricity, and in the dynamice of animal life, 
and it was shown that in every instance the force de- 
veloped and used up represented so much waste of ori- 
ginal power, which •waite would have to be made 
good, otherwise the system would come to an end. 
The balance was invariable, so far as oould be ascer- 
tained in our laboratories and workshops. Neverthe- 
less, it was contended that outside our terrestrial 
sphere the conditions were different, and therefore the 
results would be different. In one case it was pointed 
out that we actually know this to be true, viz., that 
the principle of gravitation, which brings everything 
to a standstill here, is, in the planetary system, onepf 
the components of two forces which are the cause of 
unceasing orbital motion. After referring to perma- 
nent magnetism as in some respects falling into the 
same category as magnetism, the president entered 
into some speculations as to other cosmic possibilities 
which might be true, although, owing to our environ- 
ment, these possibilities could not be realized here. 
Among those was the question of the radiation of tbe 
sun, whether that was really in process of decay or 
not. The doctrine of the dissipation of energy leads 
to the appalling result that the universe must ulti- 
mately come to one dead level of coldness, darkness, 
and desolation. The author contended that this doc- 
trine might not after all be true, but that there was a 
law of compensation coexistent with the process of 
radiation. 



TIte JdaaBeB and nialancea of Binary Starm. 

In a paper recently read before the Liverpool Astro- 
nomical Society, Mr. J. E. Gore, F.R.A.S., said: 

When the parallax of a binary was known, and the' 
elements of its orbit satisfactorily computed, it was 
easy to find some of the massesof the component'stars 
in terms of the sun's mass, and the real dimensions «f 
th^ orbit. The parallax of a few of them had been 
ascertained. First, there was the famous, binary star. 
a Centauri, which, as far as was known, was also the 
nearest star to the earth. From its orbit, computed 
by Dr. Hind in 1877, combined with a paraUaxofO'928', 
he found the mass of the system = 1°79 times the sun's 
mass, and the semi-axis major 23 '49 times the earth's 
mean distance from the sun. Assuming the latest ele- 
ments found by Dr. Elkin (a = 17'50", and period = 
77'43 years), and his parallax of 0*7?8, he foiiud the 
sum of their masses := 1759, and the semi-axis major = 
SI '13 times the sun's mean distance. Second, 7 Cassio- 
piee. Dr. Duner found for this binary a period of 
170'37 years with semi-axis major = 10'68'. Combining 
these elements with • 2 parallax of 0°154*, Mr. Gore 
found the mass of the system = 10'722 times the sun's 
mass, and the mean distance = 69°36. The magnitude 
of the components was about 4 to 7'6 ; so they had a 
star of the 4th mag. with a mass about six times as 
^reatas that of or Centauri. The calculations of the 
elements of the well-known companion to Sirius were 
still more interesting, and there was no doubt that it 
was in rapid orbital motion round its primary, proba- 
bly with a period of about 49 years. He had found the 
mass of this system ^ 71 '63 times the sun's mass. As- 
suming the attraction of the companion to be the cause 
of the observed irregularity in the propsr motion of 
Sirius, Auwers found that its mass must be about one- 
half that of Sirius ; thus, we have the mass of a 10th 
mag. star absolutely greater than that of the sun. 



WlUIain Crou, GlaaKo-w. 

With the death of this gentleman, which lately oc- 
curred in his 82d year, Glasgow loses a famous shawl 
manufacturer^ and Scotland a man of letters, an artist, 
and a poet. For many years he was a pattern 
drawer in Paisley, his native town, and gained a wide 
reputation for his exquisite taste in designing. This 
artistic ability afterward enabled him, when estab- 
lished in Glasgow as a manufacturer of shawls, to 
achieve remarkable success in business. One proof of 
liis exquisite work is the fact that at the great ex- 
hibition in 1851, the whole of his exhibits were pur- 
chased by the Empress Eugenie. In the world of 
letters, however, he was equally well known as a 
poet and a humorist, and many of his songs and 
poems will hold a permanent place in the literature 
of his country. He was also the author of a novel, 
"The Description," which went through many edi- 
tions, and is still much sought after. Tbe deceased 
gentleman's personal qualities endeared him to all who 
luiew him, and his loss 'will be widely felt. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January i, 1887.] 



^timixtit ^mtxtm. 



JtVBXCt 8TEAX FBOPffUIOV. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

Ic your last issue is a bold and novel scheme for pro- 
pelling ocean steamers by the use of jets of live steam. 
While there is nothing like a direct experiment for de- 
termining the actual value of such a system, yet a 
knowledge of what is known and of what has been 
done is sufficient to deter capitalists from undertak- 
ing it. Jet propellers, in which the jet was water, have 
been tried by the British navy ; but, as theory indi- 
cates, the efficiency was low. In thnee cases, the jet 
was produced by a turbine or centrifugal wheel, and 
the machinery and pipe^ occupied too much ^oom. 
(See Seaton on " Marine Engineering," page 2T4.) 

Mr. Ayres proposes to dispense with all machinery, 
and cause the steam jets to issue directly from the boil^ 
ers. It will not be claimed that a steam jet will be any 
more efficient than a water jet, for the amount of pres- 
sure will vary directly as the mass of the fluid flowing 
out of the orifice. A brief discussion of the jet propeller 
is given in the writer's " Analytical Mechanics," page 
344. It is there shown that the mechanical power da- 
'■ sloped per second will be : 

P« = ~l^/W+W-~u) u 

When— 

W — the weight of the water discharged, 
V = the velocity of the jet due to the pressure, 
« = the velocity of the vesseL 
Let us apply this to the water jet for a vessel on 
wbich is developed 5,000 horse power, running 15 miles 
per hour, and determine the weight of the water forced 
through' the pipes. According to practice, the velocity 
v should equal u, which, at 15 miles per hour, is about 
22 feet per second. We have from the formula — 



W = 



5,000 X 550 



-32 = 



( VS2' + 32* — 33) 23 



5,000 X 550 X 33 
484 ( V3 — 1) 



= 440,000 lb., neariy. 



Or, say, 2!iO tons per second, or nearly 800,000 tons of 
water moved about 21 miles ( u v^) per hour in refer- 
ence to the orifice. If it requires this weight of wa'ter, 
how much steam would it require to produce the same 
effect ? It is plain that it would require so much that 
all the space now occupied by the machinery will.be 
required for the coal necessary to' generate the steam. 
The quantity issolar^e we will not stop to figure it, 
but look at the problem of steam uee directly. The 
formula to^ the efficiency is : 

2 « 

e = 

y'tt' -|- o' -|- « 

the symbols being the same as before. If the steam in 
the boilers be 90 pounds absolute, and the jets about 
30, or say 20, feet under water, the eflfective head for 
driving the steam will be about, say, 3 atmospheres ; 
and if the coefficient of discharge be 060, the velocity 
of exit due to the head will be, with sufQcient accuracy 
for this case : ^^^_^ 

a/ m 
tV34X — = 
0-2 



V = 0-60 X 8 



480 ft. per second ; 



and if the velocity of the steamer be 15 miles per hour, 
its velocity per second will be, as before stated, about 
23 feet per second ; hence snbstituting u =: 22 and « = 
480, we have for the efficiency : 

2 X 22 1 

V'33» -+- 480» + 22 11 

At 10 miles per hour, the theoretical efficiency would 
be about one-sixteenth. 

This small efficiency will be fatal to the scheme. It 
is the efficiency of the jet only,*apd does not isclude 
the effect of condensation, the friction of the pipes, the 
coefficient of discharge, nor other losses. In the use of 
the steam jet, only the momentum of the steam flowing 
out will be utilized, and all the power of the heat will 
be wasted ■ \?hereas, in the steam engine, no value is 
attributed to the momentum of the steam, and every- 
thing to the heiatutilized in the cylinder. . We intended 
to consider the effect of condensation, but it seems un- 
necessary to do so beyond a uiere notice of the fact that 
its effect will be still further prejudicial. 

Db Volson Wood. 



VThe Anchor Brake. 

The Railroad Gazette proposes the following : To 
have an anchor to drop from the rear end of train 
and engage with the ties. Provision for preventing 
the bending of the ties "under the strain brought 
upon them " might pro)5ably be devised as . simply as 
for the axles ; and by having a good long spring to 
ease the shock when the soichor came to a bearing, 
in addition to the relief which would come from the 
draw springs of the entire train without any expense 
at all, a train might easily be brought to a stop 
within 15 or 20 feet from an ordinary passenger speed, 
U something did not give way. 



A KemarllLiible BoUsr Kcploslon. 

The explosion of the locomotive boiler at Jersey 
Shore, Pa., on the Beoeh Creek Railway, on tho after- 
noon of December 9, 1886, is another added to the long 
list of mysterious explosions, every one of the fourmen 
on the locomotive meeting instant death. The master 
meebanic of the road, Lamott Ames, is positive that 
the disaster was not from any defect in the boiler itself. 
The locomotive came new from the Schenectady shops 
three years ago, and bad just been repaired at an ex- 
pense of abont $2,200. The overhauling of the engine 
was done under Mr. Ames'' personal supervision. This 
gentleman has bad an experience of thirty years with 
locomotives, and previous to taking his present position, 
less than a year ago, was toad foreman of engines for 
the Northern Central Railway, at Elmira. 

The locomotive wa8*oneoftheheaviestkind, known as 
a " consalidated " engine, having four drive wheels on 
a side, and weighibg 106,000 pounds. The repairs were 
general, 120 of the 220 flues being replaced in the boiler, 
and between 150 and WO stay bolts or rivets being re- 
newed. Before leaving the shops, a test of 150 pounds 
to the square inch had been made with cold water. 
The Schenectady people wanted Mr. Ames to make the 
test 180 pounds, but he considered that more than was 
necessary, as the boiler would ne verbe allowed to carry 
more than 125 pounds. 

The engine was run out of the shop, as near as can 
be ascertained, about 2 P.M., with slight pressure. 
Philip Knight, the engineer, was instructed to take the 
locomotive to a stretch of track not much used, to oil 
the machinery, to set the pop valve in the dome at 125 
pounds, to run the locomotive up and down the track 
a few times to see that it worked satisfactorily, and 
then return for Mr. Ames, to make the trial trip of 12 
or 15 miles. Meantime Mr. Ames was occupied super- 
vising the setting of a new stationary engine, "ind he 
did not see the explosion. The blower of thr locomo- 
tive was turned on a long time, as learned f ^m those 
who saw it. 

About fifteen minutes prior to the eiplosion, the 
Fallbrook passenger train went by the new locomo- 
tive, and the engineer of the train remarked to the 
fireman that " Number four " had a high pressure, as 
indicated by the noise of blower. Joseph C. Fields, 
the machinist, sat on top of the cab, screwiiSg down 
the pop valve and waiting for the signal from Engi- 
neer Knight, when the steam gauge should show a 
pressure of 125 pounds. The locomotive had been 
standing still for at leaet 25 minutes. John Stapleton, 
another machinist, was on the graund on the right 
side of the eagine, under the cylinder, adjusting a 
cylinder cock. The only warning observed by any of 
the men was the bursting of the "branch pipe," at 
the point where it had been brazed. This was no- 
ticed by Stapleton, who called the attention of En- 
gineer Knight to it. The next instant the explosion 
occurred. The enormous fofce which 'steam exerts at 
the high pressure that must have existed in this case 
is as well illustrated by this disaster, doubtless, as by 
any that has ever occurred. The boiler was of steel, 
and pronounced by all to be perfectly sonnd. The 
wagon top, dome, and side sheets remained together. 
The engine was faping east, and this piece of the 
boiler, weighing about a ton and a half, was blown 
at an smgle of about thirty-five degrees ftom' a per- 
pendicular so far into the air that it looked like a 
mere speck in the sky. It was found a quarter of a 
mile away, over the ridge of a hill about 400 feet high, 
to the north. Kear it, and within a cirele of fifteen 
rods, were found the mangled bodies of Fields, the 
machinist. Allen Ramsay, the fireman, and ' James 
Warren, an engineer off duty, who had got on board 
the locomotive, on Knight's invitation, to ride to the 
Junction, to get his pay. The body of Knight was 
found a half mile from the others, in an opposite di- 
rection from the wreck. No part of, the locomotive 
was near him. His silver watch was badly battered, 
and stopped at 14 minutes after 3. The switch ke^s in 
his pocket were bent out of useful shape. 

Stapleton was protected by the cylinder, steam chest, 
and the strongest parts of the locomotive. 'He was 
blown twenty or thirty feet forward down the embank- 
ment, but was confined to his bed only a day or two. 
He was able to walk home. He had not been in the 
cab for some time, and did not know what the condi- 
tion of affairs was there. Not a particle of the boiler 
remained in the frame, which was broken in many 
places. The forward axle was broken in two, and the 
other axles bent badb'. The only useful portions of the 
engine remaining are the tires and wheel seta. The 
flues were scattered all over the neighborhood, one of 
them having been driven clear through a frame cot- 
tage twenty-five rods away. No«piece of the cylinder 
part of the boiler has yet been found. Of the smoke- 
stack,'only the saddle has been found. From the broken 
axle it is assumed that the first break in the boiler was 
in the cylinder part. Fragments of the bell have been 
picked up, and small splinters of the cab. The firebox 
fell within a few to4& of the wreck. One of the cylin- 
ders was badly broken, the other enough to be useless. 
The rails beneath the wheels were bent in a dozen 
places, and a lajrge excavation was made in the roadbed. 



A lady sitting at a window in a, cottage twenty-five 
rods away was admiring the brilliant paint and bright 
polish of the locomotive when the explosion occurred. 
A puff of steam, a heavy concussion, and it was all 
over. Several persons were attracted by the explosion 
in time to see the heavy wagon top with its three hu- 
man bodies sailing far into the air, distinguishable 
only as a moving black spot against the sky. Pieces of 
the locomotive have been found a mile away, and the 
explosion was distinctly heard at Williamsport, twelve 
miles away. 

The only theory that Master Mechanic Ames can 
offer is that the cock in the tube connecting the steam 
gauge with the boiler was partially turned, shutting off 
half or two-thirds of the actual pressure. He believes 
the pressure must have been three to four hundred 
pounds to the square inch. The fact that two experi- 
enced engineers were in the cab helps to make the affair 
more mysterious, as it would seem that they would 
notice anything wrong there. The pathetic part of the 
accident was that Fields, Warren, and Ramsay had 
been husbands less than a year, and that Kni^rht left a 
widow and five children unprovided for. The lesson to 
be drawn is visibly apparent : " In the use of steam, be 
wise and watchful." Of a scoreof explosions that have 
eome under the observation of Mr. Ames, he says this 
is the most frightful in the force displayed he has ever 
seen. Mark Bacuitt. 

Elmira, N. T. 

^ I 1 1 ^ 1 

Hoiv to Prevent a Cold. 

Under this title Dr. Brown-Sequard makes a con- 
tribution to the Societe de Biologie which will be 
read with interest. Everybody catches cold more or 
less often, and nobody wishes to do so ; hence Brown- 
Sequard's "method" ought to be popular. Under 
the name of a "cold" are included a number of acute 
catarrhal inflammations affecting the nasal, pharyn- 
geal, laryngeal, tracheal, or bronchial mucous mem- 
brane. In this country we even apply the term to 
acute affections of the middle ear, the eye, the stomach, 
intestines, or bladder. The cause of these so-called 
" colds " is the influence of cold, damp air upon sensi- 
tive portions of. the body, producing thereby a dis- 
turbance of the vascular equilibrium. The result is a 
congestion which settles down, perhaps with the help 
of microbes, as the late Br. Austin Flint believed, into 
an inflammation. 

The most sensitive parts of the skin, according to 
Dr. Brown-Sequard, the catarrhal genetic areas, are 
the neck and the feet. In or<1er to prevent "colds," 
therefore, one has only to harden these areas and de- 
stroy their sensitiveness. This is done by daily blow- 
ing a stream of cool air, by means of an elastic bag, 
upon the neck, and by immersing the feet in cool 
water. The air is at first only slightly cool, but is 
each day made colder, until the neck can stand an 
Arctic blast with impunity. The feet are immersed in 
water which is, at first at a temperature of about 90° 
Fah., and this is gradually reduced to 38° Fah, 

Dr. Brown-Sequard's method is only a more rigid 
and elaborate form of a vpry well-known practice, viz., 
that of daily bathing in oool water. It will, no doubt, 
be useful if the person is not aged or weak. Such 
methods, however, seem after a time to lose their ef&- 
a&ey. —Medical Record. 

* I » I * — - — 

Air In Greenlioaaea. 

The circulation of air is one of the most important 
provisions in all kinds of horticultural buildings. 
Nothing but that will fairly exclude damp, or in any 
damp weather counteract its effects. It is not enough 
to open every front window. It would be far better 
to open only one and let down a top light a little. In 
all cases there should be an outlet as well as an inlet, 
and for want of this many houses do not answer well 
for plants. A circulation of air causes a more rapii 
evaporation, and it is a common thing among good 
gardeners to open a lowei- window even in wet, cloudy 
weather. Let down one of the top lights a little, and 
light a fire. By this a free circulation is created and 
the house dried, although it were in the midst of rains 
and cloudy weather. It is too common a thing to see 
the top lights let down to give air to a house, and no 
other part opened. This is all wrong ; for there 
should be a draught. On the other hand, we see all 
the front windows and no top lights down. Many 
persons build pits three or four feet high at the back 
and half the height in front, and no air but what can 
be obtained at the top. We would always provide air 
holes at the bottom, as without such there can be no 
draught, no free circulation. When pits are built 
without this provision, the best mode of giving air is 
to pull up one light to let in air at the foot of it, 
and pushdown the next to open at top, and so on al- 
ternately through the whole range of lights, however 
long the pit may be. It is the same in giving air to 
a hotbed, only that when the air is rarefied, as it is 
inside, tilting the light a little lets out the steam, 
and the cool air will get in somewhere ; but sometimes 
when a frame is made too close and the glass is put- 
tied at the joints, things fog off in spite of tilting, 
becaoM ther« is no circulation. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



^tUuixfk ^mnitm. 



[January i, 1887. 



BNOW HZLTIBG AHD UHDEBGROIIKD COSSOITS. 

How to dispose of the snow: This is one of the most 
serious problems coDQected with the comfort and eon- 
vehience of a great city in this latitude. Many ways 
of disposing of the snow in the streets have been pro- 
posed, but, with a single eiception, we believe the only 
method heretofore adopted to a,ny extent, other tha.n 
the slow an<t very costly method of allowiag the sun 
to uielt it, is the old way of carting it off. This we all 
know is exceedingly costly and inconvenient. The 
single exception, we understand, is 
found in London, and consists in 
digging at convenient points in the 
Btreet suitable pits, connected with 
the sewer, placing stea.m coils there- 
in, and carting the snow thereto. 
This, by shortening the length of 
the haul of the enow, undoubtedly 
lessens and expedites the task of its 
Kmoval. This task, coming, as it 
usually does, suddenly and unex- 
pectedly, is always great, and some- 
times herculean. 

Still, with the extensive steam 
supply plants esi&ting in most 
cities, it would seem that nothing 
like a snow blockade of our streets, 
ought any longer to he experi- 
enced ; for, as we to»k occasion to 
eay on the"!J3d of last January : 

" The use of steam for removing 
snow is feasible; both in a practical 
and economical point of view. 

" To melt a ton of snow when the 
latter is at a tempera.tui* of 20" P. 
will require »,n expenditure of 1474 
heat units X 2,000 -394,800 heat units. Each pound of 
steam used will deliver 9665 heat units while becoming 

294,600 

condensed to water at 213* P.; therefore =303 

966'5 

would be the pounds of steain required to reduce a ton 
of snow to water at 33° F., exclusive of all waste. 

" It an effective evaporation of 6 lb. of water per 
pound of coal could be secured, which is only abovit 
half what is now obtainable from well-constructed a,nd 

306 

hous«d boilers, we should have = 50| pounds, sav 

6 

51 lb. of coal required to do the work. 

" Now, as to the economy, we have for a ton of snow 
removed the cost of 51 pournds of coal or about one- 
fortieth of a ton, which, at $5 per ton, would be 12^ 
cents per ton." 

We illustrate in this article a new method of utiliz- 
ing steam for this purpose, proposed by S. D. Locke, of 
Hoosick Falls, W. Y., that is cer- 
tbiniy very simple and economical, 
and seems to be entirely practical. 
It is the subject of two or more 
patents issued to him, to whom all 
comntunicatioDB should be ad- 
dressed. 

Mr. Locke's method if shown fully 
in our illustrations., and contem- 
plates utilizing the steam pl^.nts 
existing in most cities to melt the 
Bivsw, so avoiding all cartine. Un- 
derneath the surface gutter he pro- 
poses to construct a sub- gutter, of 
cast iron or other suitablo material, 
that connects directly with the 
sewer and that is covered with a 
grat«, nnderneath which one or 
more steain pipes are carried in 
racks, as shown in figs. 1 and 9. 
The snow, as it melts, falls through 
the grate and is conducted by the 
sab gutter into the sewer. Fig. 4 
is a longitudiual section, showing 
how the condensed steam is allowed 
to escape from, the steam pipes at 
the lowest levels, through flQat 
valves, into wells. 

By this method there is nothing 
on the surface of the street to inter- 
fere with or in any degree impede 
its teafBc, and the snow can as 
quiokly be moved by horse scrapers 
and brooms into the gutters as the 
Btteete can now b» swept. 

The cost to lay this sub-gutter 
is^ figured to be from |3.50 to |4 
per lineal toot. Assuining it to be 
$4, the entire cost per mile, on both 
sides of the street, will be $42,240. 

To show the economy of Mr. 
Locke's plan, we submit an esti- 
mate of the comparative coct of 
cleaning one mileof Broadway by 
his method and by carting. In 
this estimate we will tak* the width 
of Broadway to he 44 feet, and, to 



keep on the safe side, will double our estimated cost 
of melting snow by steam, and will call it 25 cents a 
ton instead of 12^ cents. 

It costs this city about 50 cents a load, or one cent a 
cubic foot, to cart the snow oft the streets. If the snow- 
fall during a seafionbe only two feet, there will be on 
one mile of Broadway 464,640 cubic feet of snow,- and 
we have these figures for the cost of its removal ; 

By carting 464,(>40 cubic feet at one cent a cubic foot 
=f4,M6.40. By steam, assuming that a cubic foot 




LOCKE'S SYSTEM FOB BEKOVINO SNOW BT USE OF STEA1& 



weighs ten pounds, Ihe 464,640 cubic feet will weigh 
2,333 4 tons, which, at 25 cents a ton, costs |680.08. To 
this add 5 per cent interest on plant, $2,112, a.nd we 
have $2,692.08. 

If the snowfall be five feet, the figures are b>- cart- 
ing $11,616. against only $3,064 by steam. 

These figures are suggestive ; and in addition to the 
undoubted ecanomy of the steam method shown there- 
by, it must not be forgotten that it would be far more 
effective, and that with It no such thing as snow en- 
cumbered, much less snow blockaded, streets would 
ever occur. 

Mr. Locke also proposes, by dividing his gutter 
into two or more longitudinal compartmentft, to util- 
ize it as a conduit for electrical conductors. A modi- 
fication for this purpose is shown in Fig. 3, wherein 
the lateral compartments are especially adapted to 
carry' wires or cables. The cover, being laid in in- 
clined close-fitting sections, prevents water from en- 
tering the electrical couipartinents. All of the sections 




of the cover, being held Uk place only by gravity, are 
easily removed, so tnabling the whole contents of 
the conduits to be quickly exposed for the purpose of 
examination or repair, without disturbing in the least 
the pavement of the street. 

Does not this plan offer to our telegraph and tele- 
phone companies a practical way of disposing their 
wires underground, in a position where they can be 
reached at any time, and that, too, without tearing up 
our streets ? If so, a long suffering public, always 
being provoked to righteous wrath 

^ by the constant digging up and 

la.ying down of street pavements, 
will take courage and be glad. 

*» o <o- 

■ iidlcollDK Furnace Tempemtnre. 
A method for determining the 
temperature of furnace;; has been 
recently described by M. "Wallerand, 
a Belgian mining engineerj in the 
Selgique InduHrielle. The ar- 
vangement is applied in the Srst 
instance to a Siemens-Martin steel 
Furnace ; but the principle is capa- 
ble of adaptation to other classes of 
furnaces. It depends upon the ob- 
servation of a pendulum, l»e&ting 
seconds, hung against the furnace 
wall in a convenient place for the 
fireman. The pendulum is made of 
a simple rod, carrying at one end a 
ring by' which it is suspended, and 
a weight capable of being adjusted 
up or down by a screw. In every 
case it is necessary to regulate the 
pendulum at the commencement by 
comparison -with a watch or clock giving seconds. "When 
the stoker wishes to ascertain the temperature of his 
furnace, he inserts an iron hook into the middle of the 
fireplace through a hole left for the purpose in the 
door. The iron is made from 8 mm. round rod, and is 
left in the fire for 33 seconds, or the same number of 
oscillations of the pendulum, when it must be quickly 
withdrawn. If the furnace is at a proper heat, the 
end of the hook will in this time have attained a weld- 
ing temperature, as shown by the fact that sparkling 
drops of molten iron will be thrown off by vigorously 
swinging the bar through the air. If, on the contrary, 
the test rod comes out of the furnace merely red or 
yellow, and does not throw off drops, the furnace is 
not hot enough It is evident that this procedure wilj 
not indicate the exact heat of the furnace in absolute 
measuroment. 

: o < o >» 

l>i eH4^rrotf on of tbe Dead. 

In speaking of tlie preservation of dead bodies, Gail- 
l^rfi Medical Monthly says that 
Edward I„ who died in 1307, was 
found not decayed 4^ years subse- 
quently. The flesh on the face was 
a little wasted, but not putrid. 
The body of Canute, who died in 
1017, wag found fresh in 1766. Those 
of William the Conqueror and his 
wife were perfect in 1532. In 1569 
three Roman soldiers, in the dress 
of their country, fully equipped 
with arms, were dug out of a peat 
mass near Aberdeen. They were 
quite fresh and plump after a lapse 
of about 1,500 yeaiw. In 1717 the 
bodies of Lady Kilsyth and her 
infant were embalmed. In 1796 
they were found ae perfect as in the 
hour they were embalmed. Every 
feature and limb was full. The in- 
land's features were as composed as 
if- he had only been asleep for 
eighty years. His color TVaS ae 
fresh and his flesh as plunp and 
full as in the perfect glow of health. 
The smile of infancy yid innocency 
was on his lips. At a little dis- 
tance it was difficult to distinguish 
whether Lady Kilsyth was alive or 
dead. The question is. What prV 
servative was used, and bow ap- 
plied? 



LOCKE'S ST8TEM FOB BEMOVDIO SNOW BT USB OF STEAM. 



sixty IVbuIe* Captured. 

A large school of whales was 
lately ■ captured at Cuilivoe Yell, 
Shetland, after a, very exciting 
chase. The whales flrst approached 
the Dnitshores, and when observed 
a number of boats set out in pur- 
suit. They succeeded, however, in 
gaining the water, but, after a six 
hour's chase, they were driven 
ashore and killed at Cuilivoe. The 
school numbers over sixty, some of 
them measuring over twenty feet 
in length. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January i, 1887.] 



^txmiHu ^mtticM. 



CAB COTFFLIRe. 

The front of the chamber of the dra,whead is partially 
closed by a plate formed with an elongate* opening 
for the passage of the link. Placed loosely upon rods 
within the chaujher are division plates which are sepa- 
rated and held in pwition by coited spring* placed 
upon the rods, so that the plates have a yielding 
action, g« as not to resist the entrance of the link. 
These platee eupport the link at various elevaticns, 
thereby adapting the coupl«r to pare of different 
Th» plates are all ccrrespondingly a]»ertured, 




KALTEITBECE'S CAB COHPLISQ. 

to permit the coupling pin to drop into the drawhead 
and down through the link. The pin, when lifted out 
of the drawhead, is held in a raised position by a 
Btrap and eliding trip plate, the latter being forced 
forward under the pin by springs, which act against 
a bar boltsd to the trip plat« and passed through 
the drawhead, bock of the division plate$, as shown 
in Fig. 2. These springs are lodged in recesses made 
in the drawhead, and as they t«nd to constantly force 
the bar outward, the trip plate will be forced under 
the pin the instant the latter is raised, and the parts 
will be rsady for coupling again. The entering link 
forces the trip plate back and allows the pin to drop 
and automatically couple the ears. The bar is held be- 
tween guards forme* in the back of the drawhead, 
which prevent the link entering too far ; they algo 
protect the bar from injury, so that there can be no 
failure in the proper action of the bar and trip plaie 
at the time of coupling and uncoupling. 

This invention haa been patented by BCr. W. H. 
Kaltenbeck, of Roxbury, N. Y. 



CAS COTTFIIHO. 
In this coupling the two drawheads are formed re- 
spectively with rounded faces a,mA cavities. Upon a 



C0irVSBII3L£ WISS BAAEET, 
This wire basket may be used for a vast variety of 
purposes, some of which are illustrated in the accom- 
panying engraving. The main ring or circle of wire 
is of any suitable diameter, braced by two or wore 
cross bars, which foi'ui a bottom t* the basket tm 
stand a- fJower pot, etc., on. The side or main loops 
may be shaped a^ shown in the cut, and are hinged 
on the base ring' separately, by having both of their 
eads bent arounil It, and clinched into an eye. These 
loops are arranged to overlap one another, so that 
one cannot be moved without m»vJng all, thus always 
insuring the perfect circular form or curvature of the 
sides of the basket, no matter into what form it may 
be converted. The small base loops, consisting of 
two rows, one norinaily below and the other above 
the ring, are hinged and arranged on the ring in 
precisely the same maooer. The side loops, moving 
on their hinged ends, may all be pressed upward, in- 
ward, outward, or 
downward, so as to 
be altered from a 
globe shape to a bell 
form, with all the 
jn(«rinediate forms 
and shapes. 

The basket is 
strong and durable, 
being made of the 
best spring steel wire 
heavily plated, aid 
is decidedly orna- 
mental in all the va- 
rious forms it may 
be made to assume. 
It is go simple in con- 
struction that it will 
be instantly under- 
stood, while It may 
be readily . changed 
by any one from ont 
form to another, ac- 
cording to the use to 
be made of it. The 

engraving shfiws it as a card basket, frame to support 
a lamp shade and a vessel over a lamp chimney, cake 
and etrg baskets, hanging flower basket (in which case 
the supporting cords are attached to the ring), flower 
p«t, and Sat iron bolder. It is evident that this list 
comprises but a very few of the many good uses the 
basket may" be put to. 

This invention has been patentedby Mr. A. 8. (Green- 
wood ; further particulars can be had from the Cass- 
green Mfg. Co., of Cleveland, O., and Toronto, Canada, 
. ^ < « I » ■ 



which a small lug formed on the back of the hook 
rests when the line is coiled within the casing. The 
engagement of the lug with the lip is insured by the 
spring of the looped end of the band forming the 
edges of the casing. It is evident that the rounded 
support may be formed separately and attached by 
rivets to the casing wheti the l»tter is made of non- 
metallic material ; the hook may also be varied ia 
form and otherwise attached to the line. 



OUTIUflne TOOl. 
This device is designed particularly for earpenters' 
use in the work of dressing doors and similar pieces of 
stuff to their frames, whereby a perfect lit may be ob- 
tained without the necessity of frequently setting tho 
door up in the frame to test it ae the work proceeds. 
The tool is made in several sections, each complete in 
itself, adapted to be connected together end to end, by 
a suitably arranged right and left hand screw, as shown 



"-^-i. 





%^-V\\ 



SEABUST'S CAB conPLma. 



TAPE HEASUBE. 

When, the commoci tape line is used by one person, 
it must be fastened at the end before it can be un- 
rolled and employed in making measurements. In the 
tape measure herewith illustrated, which is the inven- 
tion of Mr. Jerome Pountaia, of La Grande, Oregon, 
a simple and efficient fastener is permanently con- 
nectsd with the end of the line, for holding it while 
making measurements. The casing is of the xisual 
^orui and construction. To the outer end of the line 
is secured a metallic clip, to which is connected a hook, 
shaped as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The head of the 
hook is provided with a sharp point, and in it is 
formed an eye. The point is preferably arranged •ne 
inch from the end of the line, and is inserted in any 
suitable fixed object, when the line may be unrolled 
and used in the usual way. The eye serves to re- 
ceive an awl or blade of a knife, when it is im|»rac- 
ticable to employ the hook. T)m metal band ' form- 
ing the edges of the casing is bowed outward and then 
vertical pin Jn one drawhead are placed two connecting bent under or returned upon itself at one side of the 
^*'!,^!l5fw,' ^' 7^°r ^ hooked heads overlap each^other opening (Pig. 2) to form a rounied support for the 
»<.»..» „ « . . _ -_. . J , J hook when the line is wound up; and upon the op- 



aBZEKWOOFS COFV^BTIBIE VrfSS BASKXT, 



in Fig. 3. Formed in one of the straight edges of each 
section are seveial chambers, in each of which ia fitted a. 
plunger, pressed outward by a coiled spring, Pig 3. Se- 
cured upon the edge of the section is a inetal plate. Fig. 
2, having formed in it as ttiany openings as there are 
plungers. The plate ma.y be moved longitudinally to 
h*ld the plnngem withim their ehacibers, or to r«lea«e 
them, so that the s|»rings will force them outward 
through the openings. The plate may be moved by & 
small bar inserted in a hole laade in the plate, a recess 
being formed in tbeside of the section for the insertion 
of the bar. 
In use, the plungers are all forced within their 



to grasp the coupling pia of the opposite drawhead. 
The points of the hooks are oppositely beveled, go that 
when the cars are brought together for coupling, the 
pin will strike between the two bevels and force the 
hooks apart to permit the entrance of the pin between, 
and thus automatically effect the coupling of th« cars- 
lu each drawhead arfe arranged springs which hold the 
hooks in firm engagement with the coupling pin. To 
couple the cars, it is only necessary to place the pin in 
the drawhead and bring the cars together, when the 
hooks will entor the drawheacL and engage with the 
pin. Uncoupling is effected by merely lifting cut the 
pin. Fig. 1 shows plainly the construction when only 
one hook is used. 

This invention has been patentsd by Mr. Charles E. 
Seabury, of Stony Brook, N. Y. 

1 < < » I » — ■ 

It may not be known to some what causes the dif- 
ferent colors in bricks. The red color of bricks is due' 
to the iron contained in the clay. In the process of 
onrning, the iron compounds are changed from the far- 
rouB to the ferric condition and rendered anhydrous, 
thus developing the color. Certain clays— li^e those 
in the vicinityof Milwaukee, for instance — contain lit- 
tle or no iron, and the bricks made from them are 
light or cream colored. 



posite side of the opening there is a beveled lip under 





KAOSZRZtE'B OTJTIJinK& TOOL. 

chambers and held by the plates, The edge of the tool 
is then placed upon the surface of the frame or other 
object whose outline i*; is desired toobtain. By means 
of the small bar, the plates are then moved to release 
the plungers, whose springs will force them into eon- 
tact with the surface against which the tool is held. 
The pla.tea are then moved back as far &e they will go, 
which will permit suitably arranged friction blocks to 
press upon the plungers and hold them firmly in the 
positions they occupy. The tool is then removed 
from Contact with the surface, the exact outline of 
which will be given by the outer ends of the plungers. 
This outline can be easily transcribed to a door, panel, 
frame, or other object, -which can he easily dressed to 
maicb. 

This invention has been patented by Mr. Robert A. 
MacKenzie, of 170 East 51st Street, New York city. 



FOUNTAIN'S TAPE ICSAgUSE. 



In Pesth, Hungary, dynamite has been successfully 
used for driving piles. An iron plate 15 inches in di- 
ameter and 83^ inches thick is pl^ed in a perfectly 
horizontal position on the pile to he driven. A dyna- 
mite cartridge, in the fonn of a disk, containing 17J^ 
ounces of dynamite, is placed on the iron plate and 
eiploded by electricity. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



^tuniiiit ^mtvkm. 



[January i, 1887. 



A BemBrkable Dralnase Emterprlie. 

The RussiatL Qovernmeut is engaged id one of the 
most extensive drainage enterprises ever uadprtaken in 
any portion of the world. The location is what is 
known as the Pinsk Marshes, in the g«uthwe8t of Rus- 
eia, near tlie borders of tialicia. This region is so ex- 
tensive as to secure special designation in the ordinary 
map of Europe, aad, in point of area, is very vauch 
larprer than Ireland. The marshes have become famous 
in Russian history ae a refuge of all maDn«r of romantic 
characters, and have remained an irreclaimable wilder- 
ness up to within the last two or thr^e years, 

In I87ft the Russian Government first took in hand 
seriously the abolition of this wild expanse, owing to 
its being perpetnally more or less submerged and cov- 
ered with a jungle growth of forest, preventing not 
only communieati*n between the Russian districts on 
either side, but aJso between Russia and Austro-Ger- 
many. A large staff of engineering offlcers and several 
thousand troops were draughted into the region, and 
these have been engaged upon the undertaking since. 
Up to the present time, about 4,OOD,O0O acres have been 
reclaimed by lueans af the construction of several 
thousand miles *f ditches and canals, so broad as to be 
navigable for barges of several hundred tons burden. 
Just now the engineers are drawing up the programme 
(or next y«ar, which comprises the drainatre of 3&0,000 
acres by laeatis of the construction of 120 miles snore of 
ditches an4 canals. 

Of the 4,000,000 acres already reclaimed, 600,000 acres 
consisted of sheer bog, which has been converted into 
good meadow laud; 900,000 acres of "forest tangle," 
which have been prepared for timber purposes by cut- 
ting down the underwood and thinaing the trees ; 
OOt.OOO acr«s of grK)d forest land — forest oases in the 
middle of marshes— hitherto inaccessible, but which 
have been connected more or less by navigable canaJs, 
and thereby with the distant markets; and finally, 
2,000,000 acres have been thrown open to cultivation, 
130,000 acres of which have already been actua.lly occu- 
pied. Besides making the canals and ditches, the engi- 
neers havebuilt 179 briiges, bored 577 wells from 20 ft. 
to 80 ft. deep, and ha\'e made a survey of 30,t(]0 square 
miles of country hitherto unmapped. When the task is 
finished, Russia will have eSaced from the map of 
Europe one of the oldest and toughest bits of savage 
naturs on the Continent. From an engineering, geologi- 
cal, a.nd scientific point of vi«w generally, the work is 
one of special interest. 



FLEXIBLE BCBAl'ES. 
To the end of the handle is secured a concave board, 
having its opposite edges curved. To the back of the 
board are secured metallic sockets for receiving braces, 
which are held in sockets secured to the handle. This 
construction insures b*th strerjgth and lightness. To 
the concave face of the board is attached an oblong 
sheet of rubber, whose edges project beyond the edges 
of th« board, so that when the scraper is used only the 
rubber will be presented t» the floor or surface being 
cleaned. By applying the scraper tu the floor at the 
proper angle, the entire edge ^f the rubber sheet will 
be brought in contact wjth the floor, aitdas the scraper 
is move4 forward its concave form will cause it to re- 



PXHIANT BTEK rOB WA.TCSS9. 
The stems of self-winding and hunting-case watcheer 
are usually, held in pla?e in thependant byascrew en- 
tering a circumferential groove in the stem, or a 
grooved collar placed on the stem. Both the screw and 
collar are apt to becoioe worn, and the screw being small 
is weak and liable to be broken. In the construction 
shown by the three left-hand views of the annexed en- 
graving, the pendant is internally threaded to receive 
a collar, into which fits the stem, which passes through 
the pendant to the winding and setting mechaniain. 
The collar is provided with notches in its outer and in- 
ner surface, to receive pins passing through and pro- 
jecting frOi* the stern. The stem may be freely turned 
to wind or set the watch, as the pins are nonnally out 
of contact with the collar. The collar is carried to its 
place by bringing the upper pin into engaReiiisnt with 
its notch, and may be removed by bringing the lower 
pin into contact with its own notch. In both easea the 




Charles Bereeford, with others, went down in her. 
Lord Charles expressing himself very strongly as to 
the value of this new vertical maneuvering power. 
Th« boat was many times submerged to the bottom of 
the dock, about 17 ft., and broughtto the surface again 
on a perfectly even keel. She was also propelled a 
short distance, connection being made with the bat- 
teries by hand, but as the motors were coupled up with 
the current, nothing further was attempted. The area 
for a run, moreover, was t«o circumscribed, there be- 
ing a number ofveseels lyingin the docks, which would 
have impeded progress. 

The main application of the system would appear to 
lie in thedirection of submarine warfare, although it 
is not Intended that it shall subserve this purpose ex- 
clusively, as the inventors have designed arrangements 
for applying it to all classes of submarine operations in 
lieu of the diving bell. It is also to be observed that, 
although only applied to a 60 ft, boat, this size in no 
way iudicat«B a Uuiita.tion of the principle, which can 
be applied to any sized vessel. The present dimensions 
were only adopted because they correspond to those of 
a second-class torpedo boat. The invention appears to 
be one of much merit, and well worth the attention of 
the government, which it will doubtless receive. — Lon- 
don Timet. 



XAZLIF'B TLEZIBLE BCK&FEB. 

tain most of the 'water it gathers up, and- to carry it 
forward. 

This invention has been patented by Mr. Albert J. 
Kaelin, whose address is Oermania House, Houston, 
Texas. 




BCHDaCEL*B FZHSART STEM FOR WATCHES. 

stem and collar will turn together to screw or unscrew 
the collar. 

In the oonetruction shown in the right-hand view, 
the stem is formed with an enlarged part, beveled upon 
each $ide, and encircling which is a split steel ring 
which enters a recess formed in the threaded collar. 
Normally, thaeularged part of the stem is below the 
ring, so that the stem may be used for winding the 
watch. When the enlargedpart has been pulled through 
the ring and re8t« above it, the device ie arranged for 
setting the watch. It will be seen that this construc- 
tion, white being strong and durable, prevents the en- 
trance of du&t or moisture to the interior of the watch. 

This invention has been patented by Mr. F. W. 
Si^immel, of Murray., Idaho. 



A N«w 8a1>iii>rlne Btimt, 

The question of submarine warfare would appear to 
be advanced an important stage by a new submarine 
torpedo boat which was lately tried in the West India 
Docks, London. Thegreat problem forsolutionin this 
class of boat is a simple and ready means of effecting 
submersion quickly and of again rising to the surface 
as frequently ae may be desired. Many attempts have 
been made to compass this object by means of screws, 
inclined planes, water compartments altemateSy filled 
and emptied, and other contrivances. The present in- 
vention, however, involves none of these principles. 
The principle upon which the immersion and emersion 
of the new boat depend is simply that of displacement. 

While lying on the surface, the boat haa a given 
amount of displacement. To effect immersion, this dis- 
placement is reduced ; and when it is desired to raise 
her to the surface again, tbedisplacemeut^s increased. 
A fair analogy is that of a telescope dropped into the 
water when extended for use, i* which condition it will 
float for agiv«n tiiae. If dropped into the water closed 
up, it will straightway sink tothe bottom. The ideaof 
utilizing this principle origiaated with Mr. A>drew 
Campbell, and was worked out in pra.ctice by him in 
conjunction with Mr. Edward Wolesley and Mr. C. E. 
Lyon, and the vessel in which the joint ideas of these 
gentlemen have been embodied has been built by 
Messrs. Fletcher, Son & Fearuall, of Limehouse. 

This boat is cigar-Diaped, and pointed at both ends, 
being 60 ft. long amd 5 ft. in diameter amidships, ex- 
chisive.of a slightly raised central deck. Her displace- 
meat when fully immersed is about 50 tons. She is 
built of % in. Siemens-Martin steel and is driven by 
twin screws, the motive power being electricity, which 
is supplied from a storage battery to motors of 45 horse 
power. Electricity-also supplies light, when submerg- 
ed, by means of glow lamps. Air under pretsSUre is 
stored on board, and there is accommodation for a three 
days^ supply ; the electrical batteries als« have a simi- 
lar storage capacity. The electrical machinery has 
been designed by Mr. Qraydon Poore, and supplied lay 
Messrs. Lewis Olrick & Co. 

When lying «d the surface of the water, a depth of 
only about ten inches of the cental upper portion oHhe 
boat is visibleabove water line, and this is surmount- 
ed by a steel conning tower ab«ut 13 in. high and }5 
in. diameter and pierced with four sightholes. fin- 
trance aud exit are obtained by means of a manhole on 
the deck, which is secured with a watertight joint, and 
thsre is room for six persons in the central portion of 
the boat Displacement, is increase or reduced by 
means of cylindrical chambers which are projected or 
withdrawn telescopieally from the sides of the vessel, 
and by this simple means she can be made to rise or 
fall in the water, slowly or quickly, at the will of those 
in command. 
This -was amply demonstrated recently, when Lord 



A Pocket Camera, 

An English paper says Councilor W. J. Lancaster, of 
Colmore Row, London, has a very remarkable photo- 
graphic apparatus, to be used for detective purposes 
or ordinary portrait photography. The apparatus is 
inclosed in a watch case, which opens in the ordinary 
manner by means of a spring. As the case opens, a 
miniature camera shoots out for a moment, shots np 
again, and the thing is done. The sensitive plates to 
be used for the camera are miniature dry plates, and a 
store of these is to be carried by the operator in a 
specially prepared locket to bang on the watch chain. 
We understand that the miniature apparatus'.has been 
very eagerly welcomed by the detective police, and 
that the authorities at Scotland Yard have d<>cided to 
make extensive use of it. A detective who wishes to 
secure the portrait of a suspected character will only 
have to get close to his subject, and pretend to pull 
out his watch and look at the time, and the features 
will be registered. We may mention that for the sake 
of experiment, accurate and "speaking'- likenesses were 
taken of a large number of thi> persons who mixed in 
the crowd at the recent ScciaJists' meeting. 

, ^ < » > ^ ■ — . — 

IXPSOTED CITLTnrATOa. 

When grain is planted by the so-called "combined 
lister and drill,^' the listing forms a ditch or furrow 
several inches deep, in which the seed is deposited. 
The drawback to this listing is due to the fact that 
close to the edges of the furrow on each side, a row 
of weeds springs up, which, with ordinary cultivators, 
it' is impossible to exteriainate, and at the same time 
cultivate the soil at the bottom of the furrow. The 
object of the invention here sbowa, which has been 
patented by Mr. Daniel M. Bourne, of Cool, Kansas, 
is to provide a shovel that will, cultivate the bottom 
of the furrow, and at the same time trim the edges of 
the furrow. The cultivator plow point, or shovel, is 
provided with a cutter extending obliquely upward 
and standing above the plow proper, so that while 




BOUXSS'S IKFSOV£D GULTIV&TOB. 

the point enters the farrow, the cutter trilQB the 
side of the furrow above the point. The point may 
be raunded or beveled to bring it to a sharp point, 
and the plow may ba made with a shank or be bolted 
to a separate shank. The wing or cutter extends up- 
ward obliqij^ly from the main shovel point, and is 
slightly twisted to clear itself of trash. Its upper end 
stands slightly in rear of the body of the shovel, so 
that the contact of the cutter with the aide of ths 
furrow will cause a sliebt down draught and make 
the shovel penetrate the soil, and tend to steady the 
cultivatdr. The shovel can be attached to either a 
riding or walking cultivator, and has nothing to do 
with any outside shovels, aa the operator can use any 
kiad be desires or can take th«m entirely oS. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January i, 1887.] 



^mniitit ^mttUm. 



(Socreepondence. 



A Keinarlta1>le Painllr or Sniikea. 

To the Editor of the Scientijlc American; 

I have fifty-sts copperhead snakes in a quart hottle, 
that were taken from the old snake by Mr. Doug- 
las Bird last summer. Each of the fifty-six was in- 
closed in a sack by itself, and was attached to the 
snake bed by a string. They were alive when cut ont, 
one hour after the dam was killed, I have also the 
skin of the old snake, which measured iH feet. 

The umbilicus is still to be seen attached to several 
of the snakes in the bottle. They are each 9 inches in 
len|;th. 

Mr. Bird is a man of truth. Now, if you have a true 
snake story of greater magnitude, I should like to 
have it. S. E. Hampton, M.D. 

Milton, Ky., Dec. 6, 1886. 



DeMroetlTe ESect* of NItro-Glrcerlne. 

To the Editor of the Scientijtc AmeHcan: 

In your issue of Dec. 11 appears au article headed 
" Destruction by Nitro-Glycerine Explosions," copied 
from the New York 2'imei. It is well enough for the 
daily press to print such absurdities, but the Scienti- 
nc Ambbican should not lend its columns'to^the 
propagation of anything but the truth. It is haMly 
necessary to specify any particular part of the above 
article, as the whole thing is a tissue of falsehoods. A 
nitro-glycerine explosion cannot cause annihilation of 
human bodies, horses, magazines, etc., as therein 
stated. It is true that a man's body is often reduced 
to minute atoms, but the debris will cover the ground 
for a lar(;e space all about, and it is impossible to 
gather it together. 

I have seen a number of explosions, and in the winter 
as well as the summer. That the snow or ground 
remained pure and spotless in any case, after such an 
explosion, is false. 

I was on the ground within ten minutes after a 
nitroglycerine explosion that happened in the woods 
near Aiken, this county^ about four years a^o. A 
shooter was driving along the road with a sleigh load 
of 60 quarts of the explosive. From some means or 
other, the stuff went oS. There was a hole about three 
feet deep and four feet square hlown in the frozen 
ground. The horses were hurled forward about tweii- 
ty-flve feet, and their hind quarters were driven for- 
ward into their bodies. Nothing remained of the sleigh 
but splintei-s, and those were very small. A part of- 
the tongue, with one of the whiffletrees, was still con- 
nected by the harness to the horses. Of the unfortu- 
nate driver, we picked up probably thirty ponnds of 
flesh and bone. Several trees were chopped down to 
secure small portions of his remains. His face was 
fntact, bnt there was nothing left of his skull ; but 
the ground for -an ar«a of several acres was covered 
with th« blackened portions of the wreck, interspersed 
with darkened blood stains, that showed out clearly 
from the snow. 

Angust 27, 1885, a nitro glycerine factory was blown 
up, just beyond the city limits. Twenty-three hundred 
ponnds of the explosive were destroyed. The wreck 
was complete. A horse was killed, and his body was 
blown several yards, but it was not annihilated. Sev- 
eral heavy iron safes were turned over, but they were 
not r'fimoved from human vision. Where the factory 
had stood was a large hole in the ground, and a space 
of about twenty acres covered with kindling wood. 
There was a score or more of the heavy iron drums in 
which acid is transported, scattered about. None of 
them was annihilated. I can cite a dozen more cases 
if necessary. A. L. S. 

Bradford, Pa., Dee. 11, 1886. 

* I • I »i • 

Gas for Ocean Steamen. 

To the Editor of the Scientijlc American: 

Should the supply of natural gas prove inexhausti- 
ble, there will be no limit to its uses or applications. 
Its special adaptation to the iron and glass industries is 
a recognized fact of industrial economics, and a wider 
range of servine is contingent only on a reasonable ex- 
pectation of its continued availability. 

Among the more immediately promising opportuni- 
ties for the utilization of this natural product, that of 
its application to the propulsion of ocean steamers ap- 
pears as the most prominent. The space required for 
the storage of coal is useless space, so far as profit is 
concerned ; and the expenditure of power in carrying 
the source of power is indeed very heavy. 

The Oregon required storage for 3,800 tons of coal — 
8,000 for actual nse and 800 for contingent supply ; 
fully, if not more than, half heractnal tonnage. What- 
ever plan or device tends to the cheapening of steam 
production, without increasing risk or danger, must 
attract the attention of practical men with a view to 
its timely adoption. 

One invention prepares the way for another, and the 
larger use of most substances and appliances means 
the increased production thereof at reasonable cost. 
The couipression of gases isa recentacconkplishment of 
science which carries' with it the possibility of a con- 



stantly increasing use ; and one of the most easily ap- 
plied and practical nses of the process is the compres- 
sion of natural gas in appropriately made cylinders, 
under such pressure as will insure safety and y«t ren- 
der the cylinders easily bandied. 

Then with suitable appliances to control the flow 
of the compressed fuel, these cylinders could be stored 
in proper chambers on the vessel, and, und«r the 
charge of the engineer, this newer heat producer could 
show its marvelous use and power in driving thesteam- 
ships across the ocean, and that, too, with a maximum 
of cleanliness and comfort to the passengers, besides 
insuring a very greatly increased profit on account of 
the much larger quantities of freight carried, the coal 
bunkers being utilized for freight space. 

If the natural gas has done as much for certain 
branches of industry as is claimed that it has, it does 
not seem unreasonable to argue, by analogy at least, 
that there is a future for it as a compressed fuel, pre- 
mising, of course, that the cost of such compression be 
reduced to the smallest figure by improved and cheap- 
ened and reliable processes. _W. L. K.KLLER. 

9&ltimore, Md. 

» < « t ♦ — - — — - — 

Bow to Cast a Box on a Sbatt. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

To cast a box on a shaft or mandrel, warm the shaft 
(and box if practicable), take a pivce of ordinary writ- 
ing paper and cut to the length of the box and wide 
enough to just reach round, oil well, and wrap around 
shaft, and have lap' come on side where the box will 
come apart; then, wind the paper with« piece of com- 
mon wralpping twine, in the form of a cone screw, say 
on a box 6 inches long about ten times, and fasten the 
ends by tuckin g them under another coil. 

No. 2. — Proceed to put on cap, and pour as in other 
methojds. When the box is made and the shaft taken 
out. you will find a good box, and the twine has made 
a spiral groove in the box, running from end to end, 
giving the oil a chance to pass through the box. lu 
making a loose pulley, proceed as in casting a box. 
Always oil the paper. . A. P. Hydb. 

Oxford, Chenango Co., N. Y., Dec. 14, 1886. 



Two New Brillsli War Sblpa. 

The second of fhe new class of belted cruisers which 
has been built by the Palmer Shipbuilding and Iron 
Co., Jarrow, for the English Government, was suc- 
cessfully launched on the Tyne on Nov. 25, in the pres- 
ence of a large concourse of spectators. As the vessel 
left the ways she was christened the Undaunted by 
Lady George Hamilton, amid the cheers of the on- 
lookers. The constrnction of the Undaunted is similar 
to that of the Orlaudo, which was launched from 
this yard on August 38 last. The principal charac- 
teristics of this type of vessrt are a high atiainment of 
speed with great defensive power. 

The following is a general description of the vessel : 
Length, 300 ft.; breadth, extreme, 56 ft,; depth, mould- 
ed, 37 ft.; normal draught, 21 ft.; displacement, 5,000 
tons ; indicated horse power. 8,600 ; estimated speed, 
19 knots. The'armor is compound, or steel-faced, and 
consists of a belt 200 ft. in length extending from 1 ft. 
6 in. above the water line to 4 ft. below. This belt is 
10 in. in thickness, and is backed with 6 in. of teak, 
secnred in steel plating 1 in. in thickness. On a level 
with the top of the belt there is a protective deck 
formed of 2 in. of steel plating. Beyond the belt at 
both ends the deck is inclined downward to an aogleof 
30% and is 3 in. in thickness.- All openings in this deck 
are fitted with either armor shutters or shell proof 
gratings, apd those necessarily open in aetion axe also 
fitted with cofferdams. 

By means of the armor belt amidships and the pro- 
tective deck plating fore and aft, the whole of the ves- 
sel under this deck is rendered invulneralile to shot 
and shell, and forms an unsinkable raft- in which are 
pla<'«4 ^the engines, boilers, magazines, shell rooms, 
and steering gear. When in action, the movements of 
the machinery, the steering ot the ship, and the firing 
of the guns are under complete control from the con- 
ning tower, a massive structure at the fore end of the 
vessel. The lookout men in this tower are protected 
by 12 in. of steel-faced armor, and all the communica- 
tions to engine rooms, m.igazines, stieering wheels, etc., 
pass through a tube of steel 8 in. thick. The stem, which 
forms a ram, is exceptionally strong, and is well sup- 
ported by the framework of the vessel and the pro- 
tective deck. The ram, sternpost, and propeller 
brackets are each of cast steel, manufactured by 
Messrs. Spencer & Sons, of Newburn. The hull is built 
of Siemens-Martin steel, and is divided into over 100 
watertight compartmeats. 

Sir C. M. Palmer, .M.P., said the Undaunted belong- 
ed to a cla«s which was a new departure, to meet the 
requirements of the'empire. She would have a speed 
which would exceed that of almost any privateer that 
might be employed against the merchant shipping of 
the country, although they must not rest content with 
a speed of 18 or 19 knots while they had merchant 
ships performing 20 and 21 knots. 

Her Majesty's belted cruiser Australia, built by 



Messrs. Robert Napier & Sons, Govan, for the British 
Government, was launched on Nov. 25. The Australia 
is one of five belted cruisers ordered in April, 1885. 
The building of two, the Australia and the Galatea, 
was intrusted to Messrs. Napier & Sons ; two, the Or- 
lando and the Undaunted, were ordered from Palmer's 
Shipbiiildingand Iron Company (Limited), Jarrow-on 
Tyne; and the fifth was ordered from Earl's Shipbuild- 
ing Company, Hull. The Australia, like her sister 
ships, is 300 ft. long between perpendiculars and 56 ft. 
in extreme breadtli. The draught of water under or- 
dinary circumstances will be 19 ft., and at this draught 
the displacement will be 6,000 tons. This may at times 
be increased to 6,000 tons when a full supply of coal is 
shipped. 

It is expected that the vessel will liave a speed of 18 
knots per hour. The engines which areto be fitted on 
board, and have been designed by Messrs. Napier, are 
of the triple expansion type, working twin screws, and 
will indicate 8,500 horse power, the working pressure 
being 130 lb. It may be interesting to mention that 
when tenders were asked for vessels of this class, com- 
pound engines of 7,500 horse power were specified ; but 
Messrs. Napier proposed as an alternative scheme to fit 
triple expansion engines on board, and undertook to 
develop 8,500 horse power, and that without taking up 
any more room in the ship or increasing the collective 
weight of the machinery and coal. 

The Admiralty accepted this proposal, and carried 
it out in the other ships of the class. The result will 
be to increase the speed by about a knot per hour, 
while less coal will be consumed. The boilers are of 
the double ended multitubular type,'and have corru- 
gated fiues. The armament will consist of two very 
long range 9}4 in. Armstrong guns, ten 6 in. guns of 
the same class, all mounted on central pivot Vavassenr 
mountings, eight 6 pounder and eight 3 paunder quick 
firing guns, also six torpedo impulse tubes. The two 
striking characteristics of the ship are her high rate 
of speed and length of gun, or range of fire. These 
qualities would generally enable her to overtake an 
enemy or to avoid one altogether if too heavy metal 
forher, or using her great speed she might keep the 
enemy within range of her big guns while she herself 
was beyond the enemy's fire. Every safeguard has 
been adopted to shield her from the enemy's fire and 
to prevent her from sinking. She is divided into about 
130 compartments or cells. The engines and steering 
gear are all under the water line, and are protected 
from debris and from dropping fire by a 2 in. thick 
steel deck extending the whole length of the ship. 
The water line of the "hip is protected by an armor 
belt 10 in. thick, steel-faced, strongly supported by 
teak and steel backing, and capable of resisting a shot 
or shell from 10 in. guns. 

At a luncheon which followed, Mr. A. C. Kirk, the 
head of the firm of Messrs. R. Napier * Sons, said the 
ship that had just been launched was a formidable ad- 
dition to the British Navy. It was a matter of con- 
gratulation, he thought, to the country that a private 
llrui should be able, without any effort, to advance 
such a vessel to its present stage of completion, includ- 
ing the testing of 132 watertight compartments and 
the testing of 600 tons of armor plate, within a period 
of about 20 months. Had it been necessary, it could 
have been done in even less time. The Admiralty, in 
preparing this design, had succeeded in combining the 
confiicting qualities of a war ship in a rare degree- 
namely, offensive and defensive power, a larpje range 
of action, with a high rate of speed. The Australia 
was the fifty-first war ship which had been built by 

the firm. 

■» < »t ^ 

A Note en WaterluB Pottetf Plaut*. 

In the operation of watering potted plants, per- 
sons not practically familiar with plant culture are 
apt to make serious mistakes. Cultivators find by 
ftperience that an excess or water at the roots is very 
injurious to almost all plants, and hence it is usual 
to direct that great caution be used in the applica- 
tion of water, especially in winter. The result is 
that frequently the opposite extreme is fallen into, 
to the great injury of the plants. From the moment 
that the soil becomes so far dried that the fibers of 
the roots cannot absorb moisture from it, the supply 
of the plant's food is cut off, and it begins to suffer. 
Some plants can bear this loss of water with more im- 
punity than ' others ; some again, and the heath 
family among the rest, are in this way soon destroyed. 
The object in watering should be to prevent this 
stage of dryness being reached, at least di^ring the 
time a plant is growing, and at all times in the case 
of those of very rigid structure ; at the same time, that 
excess which would sodden the soil and gorge the 
plants is also avoided. 'Within these limits the most 
inexperienced persons may follow sound directions 
for the application of water with safety. But when- 
ever water is given to pot plants, enough should be em- 
ployed to wet the soil thoroughly, and the difference 
between plants that require less or more water should 
be made by watering more orlessfreqnently.and not 
by giving preater or less quantities at one time. — 
Parmer's (I->ish) Gazette. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



8 



^tltntxih ^mttUm* 



[January i, 1887. 



THE LEIZ0E8 BREAKVAIEB, PQBTVOAI. 

One of th« most atriking mechanical works is 
the great crane Titon, which is now at ■work 
in the port of Leixoee, Portugal, employed in 
placing the artificial stone btocke, 60toD8 weight 
each, for the construction of the breakwater. 
" Nothing is more imposing," says a spectator, 
" than to see this extraordinary machine trans- 
ferring itself along the rails, swinging in all di- 
rections, raising enormous blocks of stone, and 
sinking tkeiii slowly in the ocean to construct 
the walls of this remarkable mole." 

The larger arm of the crane measures 46 meters 
from the axis of the machine, a.nd the shorter 
ZiX inetera, making a total length of 68^ me- 
ters. Its height from the center is 5^ meters, 
and at the extremities O'Sl of a meter. It has 
a counterweight consisting of solid masonry. It 
rests upon a circular tower, and turns upon 16 
wheels of steel, in g^roups of 4. The vertical 
axis gives lateral movement to this enoruioua 
apparatus. The superior part rests upon 33 
wheels, arranged in groups ofS, which run upon 
steel rails. Mounted upon 
the rear arm are two steam 
engines, of 50 horse power, 
which work the machinery of 
the crane. Its total weight is 
i60 tons, and the larger arm 
has snfHcient strength, as we 
have said, to place and move 
blocks of 50 tons a distance 
of 27 meters, requiring f«r 
this •peration, after the stone 
is f sfitened, 16 minutes 20 seo- 
oods from the time it is at- 
tached to the chains. 

Our enpraving represents 

the crane at work uyon the 

mole. It was constructed by 

the Fives-Lille Co., Prance. 

Our engraving is from La 

Ilustraaion Etpanola y Am»- 

ricana. . 

*♦* . 

BOLUITG PLATfOBMfl AITD 

ASHOK-CLAD BATTEBCEg. 

The form of battery de- 
iscribed in the following arti- 
cle is in accordance with the 
plans of Commander Mongia, 
in which he proposes the use 
of a platform rolling over au 
iron track. The project that 
he haa studied admits of the 
putting in battery of a 6 inch 




r%. i.-EOiLrBr& platfoem. 




Fig, 2.-E0LLIN0 AEMOE-CLAD BATTEEY, 



De Bange gun, mounted upon a siege carriage 
and provided with a hydraulio brake. The 
platform properly so called Is, as he explains 
it,' esaentiaJly f»n»ed of a frame composed of 
four iron plate and an^le ii-on girders, which in- 
i^raect each other in pairs at right angles, and 
the extremities of which are connected by a 
cover of iron plate (Fig. 1). 

This frame is provided with a circular chan- 
nel, likewise of plate and angle Icon, wliosecen- 
teristhe virtual pivot of the carriage. Exter- 
nally to this channel, the platform is covered 
with striated iron plate, and internally with a 
■wooden floor. In the channel there iMoves a 
oast steel ring, which is centered by a system ot 
guide wheels, and rests up»n the bottom of the 
channel through the intermedium of five roll- 
ers, two of which are under the wheels of the 
carriage, one under the butt end, and the two 
otherti at e^ual distances from the preaeding. 
When the carriage is in battery, the two wheels 
and tlie butt bear upon the ring, thus permit- 
ting of quickly giving the piece every possible 
direction of aim in a horizon- 
tal position. The platform is 
supported by four pairs of 
■wheels, the axles of two pairs 
of which are at right angles 
■with those of the •ther two. 
Owing to a very simple me- 
chanism, it Is possible, at will, 
to make each of the wheels 
bear upon the rail that eor- 
responds to it, or to raise it 
a few fractions of an inch 
above it. 

From such an arrangement, 
it results, in the first place, 
that the-direction of the plat- 
form can be ehanpred on a 
crossinff of two tracks at right 
angles, and consequently can 
be easily moved about at the 
bottiin •! a trench ; and, sec- 
ond, that it possesses great 
stability at the moment of 
firing, although maneuvered 
on a system of ordinary rail- 
way tracks spaced five feet 
apart. 

The positions for firing are 
marked upon the main track 
by a $uall crossing analogous 
to that for the change of di- 
rection. When the piece is 
to be fired, the entire eight 




THE LEIZOES BREAEWATEE, POETUClAL. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



Januarv I, 1887.] 



^mniitit ^mnitm. 



wheels are pat in action at the earaetime, thus pre- 
venting the whole from getting out of true, giving the 
affair a wide and solid base, and preventing the car 
from r«!Coilirig As the car, carriage, and gun, as a 
whole, do not weif?h any more than a heavily loaded 
railway oar(40,000 lb.}, it requires but a fewmen to rap- 
idly move the system over an iron track of the ordinary 
type. 

The organization proposed by Commander Mongin 
consists of »D ordinary railway running parallel with 



The firat experiments on a rational use Of armor-clad 
bfttteriea, movable upon rails, were madein.thesiegeof 
Paris. Since then the question has be^n the subject of 
serious study, especially on the part of Commander 
Mongin. This high officer now proposes roliing annor- 
clad batteries that may be sa.vi to be indestrnctible. 
He thinks DfeLt the adoption of a system of trains of 
guns thus protected would permit of greatly reducing 
the artillery maUritl neceeeary for the armament of 
detached forts. 



sion springs, affixed to theflooringof the battery. This 
flooring consists of two sole bars connected at their ex- 
tremities, and between the axles, by ten email cross 
gilders, which are themselves connected in pairs in the 
direction of the longitudinal axis of the flooring by ten 
struts. The whole, wiiich is of plate and angle iron, is 
covered with a floor consisting of iron plates jiixta 
posed and carefully riveted to the sole bars, girders, 
and struts. 
Two end panels and two intermediate stays divide 




^0 20 30 ■ 4--0 _ SO 

THE STEAMSHIP GREAT EASTERK. 



daOTrj&iros 



the general direction of the forts of a,n intrenched 
camp, along the glacis and beneath the fire of the gorge 
facing!!. Starting from the points where it was not 
covered by the masonry of the fort, this track would 
follow ft sort of siege trench with a nearly horizontal 
bottom. An investment of gabions and hurdles toward 
tiie interior would sustain aglacis bavin/; an easy slope 
and provided with an abatis. Here and there (at inter- 
vals of 15 or 30 yards, tor example) the main track 
would be provided with a crossingtopnriuit Of putting 
a movable gun in battery upon it. Near by, there 
would be a email siege magazine, built under the 
f^lacis. 

When necessary, the raateri.fls of the abatis would 
be separatad at the right of these Sring places, so as to 
allow the enemy's works to be seen plainly without 
those inside exposing' themselves. Thus established 
in such positions, the artillery would enjoy all tSie ad- 
vantages of the attacking batteries. Like the latter, it 
would show nothing^ but the guns themselves. Again, 
the enemy might not be able to vecognize its location 
except by observing the cloud of smokn due to the-tir- 
ing. The gunners would not have to fear the bursting 
of shells on the talusof the parapets, and most of the 
enemy's projectiles, which did not directly touch the 
material, would pass beyond without producing a use- 
ful effect. When the besieger had succeeded in regu- 
lat'ing his firing in au alarming manner, these movable 
pieces would be run 40 or 50 yards to the ripht or left, 
thu« obliging the enemy to modify his aim at every 
instant. 

If the form of the ground did not permit of excavat- 
ing a long trench in a straight line without its being 
taken by a raking fire, it would be broken up into an 
embattleraented form, whose rectangular parts would 
be covered with high traverses ol a symmetrically ir- 
regular shape. 

Finally, it must not belostsi^ht of that the carriages 
employed permit of an indefinite field of fire in a hori- 
zontal direction, and that they micfht, should occasion 
require it, be turned about and strongly support the 
firing of the fort shoulii the enemy attempt a coup de 
main on the gorge. 

Instead of continuing the track along the entire 
length of the attacked forts, merely 200 or 300 yard sec- 
tions might be constructed to the right and left of the 
la.tter, and batteries of -movable pieces be thus created 
that wouUl advantageously replace »he armed, annex- 
ed batteries of stationary guns. 

There is do doubt that a gun which can be shifted as 
soon as the enemy's fire is regulated is capable of pro- 
ducing as great an effect as three guns' occupying a 
stationary position, or, in 
other words, that such a 
gun 'Will finally reduce 
three guns of the enemy to 
silence. 

Moreover, it ie posaible 
to combine the two means 
of resistance t« the Are of 
the enemy's artillery, that 
la to say, mobility in a 
horizontal position and 
armor plate protection. 
Hence the idea of armor- 
clad rolliug batteries, which 
■was carried out for the first 
time in. France toward the 
end of the year 1870. 



The battery of which he has formed a project may 
be considered, as a whole, as a hollow girder, iron clad 
on four of its sides, ancKexternally capa,ble of enduring 
heavy blows withont being disturbed. This girder is 
fixed upon a sti-ong floorinR Supported by nine sus- 
pended axles that permit of a side movement of the 
whole (Fig. 2). The axles are of steel, and are provided 
with iron wheels 3K ft- in diameter, having hard steel 
rinie2 in. thick. TheirS in. journals are provided with 
caat steel grease boxes, connected with 25 ton suspen- 




the battery into three compartments, each containing 
one gun. The armor in front consists of two 16 in. 
thick plates of tolled iron connected all the way up by 
a iii»rti«e joint, and containing three embrasures at a 
minimum distance apart of 13 ft. from axis to axis, 
which are provided at the top and throughout their 
entire length with a rat»bet 8 in. in depth. The prime 
cost of an armor-clad rolling battery amounts to but 
|80,000— a. sum to which must be addedthecostof three 
6 in. guns. 

These batteries may be advantageously employed 
during the course of the operation *i defending the 
encierite •f a place or the intervals between the forts of 
an intrenched camp. They are likewise of a nature to 
constitute the elements of a siege park of great power. 
It is even periiiitted us to foresee the coming of the 
day when tbey will make their debut upon otir fields 
of battle.— //a Nature. 



-•I'-f-jrfz. 



■ent 



CJTltlOTB QBOWTK OF 7SE£ {Fraa>itma exetiaior). 



CTTBIOUS OBOWTH OF TSEE {Fnxlnue exodtUir). 

In this country the artificial trainiutj of shrubs and 
tJHes has not attained that degree cf perfection that m 
observed in the countries of Europe. This is due pro- 
bably to the fact that the gardens and parka abroad 
have been, many of them, kept in a most perfect 8tate 
of cultivation for years, and even for centuries. Italy 
is especially noted for the beauty of form and design 
that has been iinp9,rted to the garden by the use of 
trimmed shrubs and hedges. This style of gardening 
has been extensively followed in nearly all the couni 
tries of Eur»pe ; and although there is no pretense at 
courting nature, this has, nevertheless, asserted itself, 
and age has added to thiR method a dignity which 
greatly heightens its original effect. 

At Versailles, at Fontainebleau, at the Imperial Gar- 
dens in Austria, and in Germany, this same style is to 
be found. In England, also, we observe the same 
effect, not so much in the public gardens as ia the pri- 
vate parks. 

At Haddon Hall there are two «(uite celebrated box- 
wood trees, one representing a shvf and the other a 
peacock of heroic nvie. At Chatsworth. near by, ther* 
ar^iiiany curiou.s shapes to be found. The tree shown 
in the accompanying cut is at present in the Jardin 
d'Accliinatation, inParis. By examining the part near- 
est the ground, it will be observed that it originally 
consisted of five separate trees grafted together, which 
were successively divided and grown together again, 
producing the curious loops and forms observable in 
the illustration, 'whieh is a faithful delineation, taken 
directly from a photograph of the plant itself. 



TH£ GS£&T EASTEBir. 

This steamship, which for more than a third of a. 
century has remained the largest ever constructed, 
wj»s designed, about 1853, by the distinguished engi- 
neer Brunei, for the trade between England ani Aus- 
tralia. It was calculated 'th&t a ship could be built 
having sufficient capacity to carry enough coal for the 
round trip in addition to a great many passengers 
and a paying cargo. She was built by J. Scott Rus- 
sell at his works in Uillwall, London, and was ready 
to be launched in November, 1857, but could not be 
ui»Ved until the following January. Even that early 
in her history her unlucky star assumed the ascend- 
ency, and in all her subsequent wanderings seemed 
ever present. 

When launched, her cost was $3,831,680. 

The 6reat Eaatem. is 603 it. in extretme length, 83 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



TO 



^tintiiu ^mtticm. 



[January i, 1887. 



ft. beam, and 2'?,000 tonB actual capacity. She was 
built of iron, and double caBed to about three feet 
above the water line. The motive power conBiBted of 
eight engineB, four for the paddle wheelB. which were 
56 ft. in diameter, and four for the Bcrew, 34 ft. in 
diameter. The cylinderBof the paddle engineB were 
74 in. in diameter by 14 ft. Btroke; and thoBe of the 
Bcrew were 84 in. in diameter and 4 ft. Btroke. The 
heating Burface of the boilerB Bupplying the paddle en- 
gineB was 44,000 b^. ft., while that of the Bcrew engine 
boilerB was Btill larger. The united nominal horse 
power was 4,tOO. 

The first voyage to New York was made in 1860, and 
during the voyage she nearly averaged 336 miles per 
diem, or 14 miles per hour. Steaiu was carried at a 
pressure of from 15 to 2i pounds, and the total quan- 
tity of coal consumed was 2,877 tons. Since then her 
history has been strange and eventful, and the opinion 
we expressed in our issue of July 7, 1860, upon her 
visit to New York, has been most peculiarly borne 
out by the facts : " Although we cannot but regard the 
Oreat Eastern as a failure in payability, yet she is not 
so in a scientific sense. She is a grand experiment." 

This ship, which, notwithstanding the many hard 
knocks she has received, seeius to be in almcwt as^ood 
condition as when launched, now attracts attention 
because of tbe new use she is to be put to. For some 
time she haii been exhibited at Liverpool, and has 
lately been taken as a " show ship" to Dublin. It is 
to be hoped that this venture will prove more remun- 
erative than former ones ; it certainly should, since the 
vessel Is well worth a long journey to see, and a criti- 
cal examination of her hull and'machinery cannot fail 
to be both instructive and interesting. It is to be 
hoped that those in charge will brave the dangers of 
the Atlantic, and bring the leviathan once more to 
this country. 

^ 4 ■ I ■ 

Simple Chemical Kxperlments. 

The following are given in The Chemist and drug- 
gist, by way of suggestions to druggists in the pre- 
paration of a variety of salable articles for the holiday 
season. 

THE MAGNESIUM LIGHT. 

I>irections. — Take hold of the end of the ribbon by a 
pair of pliers, and introduce the other end into a tlame, 
when it will at once take fire and batn brilliantly. 

Mttf-riaL—h piece of magnesium ribbon. To be 
packed by putting in an ordinary oval pill box laid in 
cotton wool, and wrapped in blue paper, labeled the 
above, and charged &d. a box. The chemist that puts 
it up tfl judge for himself the quantity of wire. 

INK AND WATER TRICK. 

The following in a box, with bill of directions, may 
be profitably sold for l.«. or \s. 6d.: 3 packets labeled 
respectively Nos. 1, 2, and3. No. 1 contains about| ss. 
fer. sulph. gran.; No. 2 about J j. tannin; and No. 3 
about I 88. acid, oxalic, pulv. 

Directions. — Take two decanters (preferably dif- 
ferent shapes, so as to avoid suspicion of changing) 
and fill them both with water. Introdnce into one of 
them a small portion of No. 1 powder and the same of 
No. 2. This will form a black compound resembling 
ink.. Into the other put another portion of No. lonly. 
and shake till dissolved. This liquid will be clear like 
water. Now wrap up a pinch of Ko. 3 and the same of 
No. 2, each in a small piece of blotting paper (different 
colors, so as to prevent mistake), and conceal these in 
the palm of your hand. You are now ready for the 
trick. Step among the audience and explain that you 
have two bottles, one containing ink and the other 
water. This they may see for themselves. Now place 
the ink bottle at one end of the room, cover with a 
borrowed handkerchief, and, while doing so, contrive 
to slip in the blotting paper containing No. 3. Shake 
well, and let it stand covered. 9to to the other end of 
the room aud do the same with the " water " bottle, 
slipping in No. 2 packet, •n removing the cavers, 
chemical action will have taken place in the bottles, 
and the two liquids will appear to have changed places, 
the ink bottle containing water and the water one ink. 
It is well to practice this trick several times in private 
before' showing to an audience. 

GROWTH WITHOUT lilPK. 

A small bottle containing about } j. cupric chloride 
in crystals, and a 4 oz. bottle filled with strong solution 
•f K4FeCy«. The two might be put in a cardboard 
case (such as is used for proprietary medicines) with 
bill of directions, and charged about "is. 

Directions.— T&]s.e a tumbler of water and put in a 
dessertspoonful of the solution. Mix by stirring, and 
then carefully drop in a crystal or two out of the small 
bottle and let the glass stand quite still for a few min- 
utes, when a beautiful stracture resembling brown sea- 
weed will grow up and soon fill the glass. A tall, nar- 
row jar is best to use, and the exact quantities can be 
best judged by practice. 

TO CONVERT STEEL INTO COPPER. 

Dip the bright blade of a steel knife (or a piece of 
bright steel) into the solution supplied. In a few min- 
utes it will be fonnd to be coated with copper. 

CmUnts of the Box. — 5 J. bottle solution of copper 
sulphate acidulated. 



AN INCREDIBLE FEAT. 

To take a coin out of water without wetting the 
hand. 

With the powder supplied well sprinkle the surface 
of the water in which the coin is placed, or the hand 
may be rubbed over with the powder. In either case 
thu band may be dipped into the water without be- 
coming wet, and thus the coin may be rem5ved. After 
performing the feat, a shake of the hand will dislodge 
the adhering powder. 

Envelope contains, in packet form, 1 ss. lycopodium 
powder. 

THE MAGIC WHIRLPOOL. 

Fill a small basin with hot water, and throw upon 
its surface a few fragments of the substance supplied.' 
They will instantly acquire a rotary and progressive 
motion, which will continue for some minutes. Before 
the motion ceases drop on to the surface a little oil of 
turpentine. The floating particles will quickly dart 
away as if by mai^ic, and will become almost stationary. 

Box contains % ij. camphor in small fragments, 

THE DANCING FIRE BALL. 

Directions. — Procure a stout and tolerably wide test- 
tube. Place in it a teaspoonful of the powder and heat 
over a spirit lamp. When it is liquefied and begins to 
boil, drop into it a piece of the charcoal about the size 
of a pea. It will immediately be^in to glow, and will 
dance about on the surface of the liquid as if alive. 

Contents of the Box. — (a) J^ oz, pill box (deep) con- 
taining powdered chlorate of potash ; (&) piece of char- 
coal. 

A LIQUID PRODUCE* BY TWO flOLIDS. 

Directions.— Jlnh together in a dry mortar eqnal por- 
tions of the powders provided, and in a few minutes a 
blue liquid will be formed. 

Contents of the Box. — Half ounce carbonate of am- 
monia powdered, J^ ounce bluew vitriol powdered, or, 
omitting "blue" in directions, H oz. sulphate of soda 
powdered, J^ oz. acetate of lead. 

THE FIr'b EATER. 

Directions. — Cut off about an inch of the prepared 
string, wrap it in a piece of tow. Hold it in left hand; 
withrighthand pnt more towinto the mouth, chewit, 
and appear to swallow it. Now take the handful in 
which is the string and put into the mouth, taking 
ont at the same time, unobserved, the piece already 
chewed. Take a breath through the noatrils and 
breathe it out through the mouth. Repeat a few 
times and smoke will issue forth, and on opening 
wide the mouth it will be lighted up with a-glow. 
Whenthe mouth is shut andthe tow pressed together, 
the fire goes out. 

Contents of the Box.—(l) A piece of thick string about 
3^ yard I'oitg, prepared by soaking in solution niter and 
drying ; (2) tow. Can be sold for 3d. 

TRANSFORMATION LIQUIB. 

Solution of caustic potass 1 oz., powdered nitrate of 
cobalt 1 drachm. 

Directions. — Mix the nitrate of cobalt with the caus- 
tic potass, when decomposition of the salt and precipi- 
tation of blue oxide of cobalt will take place. Cork 
the bottle aud the liquid will assume a blue color, from 
which it will pass to a lilac, afterward, to a peach tint, 
and finally to a lif^ht red. 

THE MAGIC LIQUIDS. 

Tincture of litmus and sulphate of indigo, of each }4 
oz. in separate bottles'. Label distinctly. 

Directions.— Tout a little of each into separate wine- 
glasses. Mix these two blue fluids together, and to the 
f^reat astonishment of everybody, the result will be a 
beautiful red. 

ARBOR DIANS. 

Being the materiai^s for making a silver tree. 

Directions.— DiBBolve the crystals in the blue paper 
in a tableepoonful of water, and add the contents of 
the bottle to this solution and allow it to stand aside a 
little while, when it will form a silver tree in full 
growth. 

Materials. — 3 ss. of argent, nit. wrapped in blue 
paper and 3 j- of hydrargyrum in a small flat bottle 
packed in a one dozen powder box in cotton' wool. 
Label ".Poison." To sell at 6d. or Is. 

HOAR FROST SHRUB. 

Ingredients. — In chip box, benzoic aCid. 

Directions. — -Place a sprig of rosemary, or any other 
garden herb, in aglass jar, so that' when it is invnrt- 
ed the stem may be downward, and the . sprig sup- 
ported by the sides of the jar ; put some of the crys- 
tals on a piece of hot iron, invert the jar over the 
iron, and leave the whole untouched until the sprig 
becomes, by the deposited vapor, like hoar frost. 

MAGICAL TRANSMUTATIONS. 

Ingredients.— (1) Ground logwood chips; (2) ground 
alum. 

Directions. — Infuse the powder No. 1 in water, and 
when the liquor is sufficiently red pour it into a bottle. 
Then take three drinking-glasHea and rinse one of them 
with strong vinegar ; throw into the second a small 
quantity of powder No. 2, which will not be observed 
if the glass has been washed ; and leave the third with- 
out any preparation. If the red liquor in the bottle be 
poured into the first glass, it will appear of a straw 
color ; if into the second, it will paes gradually front- a 



bluish gray to black, when stirred with a key or any 
piece of iron which has been previously dipped in 
strong vinegar. In the third glass, the liquor will aS' 
sume a violet tint. 

TO MELT IRON IN A MOMENT. 

Ingredient. — Roll of sulphur. 

Directions. — Heat a piece of iron (a poker will do) to 
white heat, then apply the roll of sulphur. The iron 
will immediately melt and run into drops. This ex- 
periment is best performed over a wash basin of water, 
allowing the melted iron to drop iuto the water. 

CRYSTAL ROOM ORNAMENT, TO MAKE. 

Ingredients. — Sulphate of alumina, sulphate of cop- 
per, sulphate of soda, sulphate of potass, sulphate of 
iron, sulphate ofzinc, sulphate of magnesia, of each ^ 
oz. in separate chip boxes. 

Directions. — Dissolveeach of the salts in warm water 
in a separate tumbler. When dissolved, pour all to- 
gether into an evaporating dish and mix well with a 
glass rod. Place the dish in a warm place where it 
cannot be affected by dust, and where it is not liable 
to be agitated. When evaporation has taken place, 
the whole will begin to shoot out iuto crystals. Their 
color and peculiar form of crystallization will distin- 
guish each crystal separately, and the whole together 
will display a very curious and pleasing appearance. 
Preserve carefully from dust. 

ARTIFICIAL CORAL HOR GROTTOES. 

Ingredients. — Vermilion, 2 draehins ; pale resin, 1 oz. 

Direct these to be melted together. Have ready 
branches of twigs peeled and dried ; paint them over 
with this mixture while hot. The blackthorn is the 
best branch for the purpose. Hold these over a gen- 
tle fire, turning them round till they are perfectly cov- 
ered and smooth. 

SILVER TREE. 

Ingredients-— {i) Nitrate silver, 2 drachms; (2) quick- 
silver, 1 drachm. 

Dissolve No. 1 in J^ pint of filtered water, and set the 
glass vessel containing the solution on the chimney 
piece where it is not likely to be disturbed. Now pour 
in No. 2 ; in a short time the silver will be precipitated 
in the most beautiful arborescent form, resembling 
real vegetation. 

TIN TREE. 

Ingredients. — (1) Muriate tin, 3 drachms; (2) nitric 
acid, 10, drops ; (3) piece of zinc attached to copper wire. 

Directions. — Put No. 1 into a glass vessel with suffi- 
cient water to three parts fill, then add No. 2, shake 
well until dissolved. Now place No. 3 through a cork 
and insert In solution so that no part shall touch top, 
bottom, or sideof glass vessel. Let the whole rest quiet- 
ly for a short time. The tree will grow, and have a very 
lustrous appearance. 

LEAD TREE. 

Ingredients. — Sugar of lead, ^ oz.; zinc fastened to 
a wire (copper or brass) twisted in the form of a spiral 
spring. From the center suspend a small porcelain 
doll with wire twisted round it. 

Place the lead acetate in a bottle of water, shake 
well, then thrust zinc and appendages into it, and cork 
securely. In a few days.the tree will begin to grow, 
and produce a most beautiful effect. 

TO GIVE GHASTLY APPEARANCE TO COMPANY. 

Ingredients. — Mixture in bottle ; piece of tow. 

Composition of Mixture. — Salt, inf. saffron, spt. vin. 
methyl. 

Directions. — Dip a small piece of tow into the mix- 
ture, and ignite ina room of company, when the whole 
will have a v^y ghastly appearance. Extinguish all 
other lights in the room. 

CRYSTAL ORNAMENT. 

Ingredient.— Alnm, 18 oz. 

Directions. — Dissolve in 2 pints of soft water by boil- 
ing it gently in a close tinned vessel over a moderate 
fire, keeping it stirred with a wooden spatula until the 
solution is completed. When the liquor is alm.ost cold, 
suspend a email basket, ears of corn, moss rose, hya- 
cinth, or almost any vegetable specimen, by means of 
a small thread or twine fcom a lath «r small stick 
placed horizontall^across the aperture of a deep glass 
or eaj-theuware jar, into which the solution is poured. 
The respective articles should remain in the solution 
twenty-four hours ; when they are taken out, they are 
to be carefully suspended in the shade until quite dry. 
The whole process of crystallization is best conducted 
in a cool situation. When the objects to be crystallized 
are put into the solution while it is quite cold, the crys- 
tals are apt to be formed too large ; on the other hand, 
should it be too hot, the crystals will be small in pro- 
portion. The best temperature is about 95° Fabr. 

CHAMELEON PICTURES. 

Put into small bottles, say 2 drachm, some bromide 
of copper, muriate of cobalt, and acetate of cobalt in 
solution. Label distinctly. 

Directions.— JiT&vf a scene on paper with bromide of 
copper. The trees stretching across the sky, and the 
snow-covered ground, maybe changed to vernal beauty 
by heat. This is done by painting in the grass, foli- 
age, etc., in muriate of cobalt, and the blues — of the 
sky and water — in acetate of cobalt. These tints will 
be invisible until held before the lire. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January t, 1887.] 



^mnixtu ^ntxitm. 



II 



£HGiir£BBi0o myEHTioirs. 

An alarm for railway trains has been 
pateoUid by Meaars. 49tior^e JS. Carpenter and Albert F. 
Tncker, of Jersey City, N. J. Electrical connectione 
areeo made "between each car of the train tbat tbe acci- 
dental separation of any of tbe care will be signaled to 
tbe engineer, and alao to the cabooaeiwben used on 
freight tralna. 

A railway tricycle haa been patented by 

Mr. William Hayes, of Loe Angeles, Cal. Tbe Inven- 
tioa consists of a trailing wheel free to- awing within 
certain limitef and withont flangest with a seat placed 
at ri^bt angles to the main wheels^ tbe object beinj; Co 
avoid friction of tbe flanges of the wheels on cnrvee, as 
well a$ on straight tracka. 

i^A rail joint has been patented by 

Measra.MarUS.I^wiA and Carlton A. Dodge, of Or- 
ange City. Iowa. Tbefaatenlog conaista of a aeetionsl 
flahplate, one section being apertnrcd and bavtng In- 
clined receeseaoMkotcheB, and thejOther having Inclin- 
ed projections and loogltadlnal alou with enlargements, 
a donble-beaded bolt with one head of greater diameter 
tban the otber^ and a wedge, with other novel featores. 

A 'ear coupling has been patented by 

Messrs. George C. McEitterick, Tbomaa R. Mooai^e^ 
and John J. McKltter^k, of Jaclcson, Ohio. The draw- 
beffd ha(:$kjlnk chamber, and an npperlongitndinal slot 
and groove connected therewith, with othernove) de- 
tails, besides aconpling dog of novel confttraction, the 
conplinghelngalso for nae with cnrs having the ordi- 
nary pin and link coupling. 

A car axle Imz has been patented "by 

H?. Stephen K. Slinard, of Pomptoa. N. J. The prin- 
ciple of the invention Is givinfr a anpport to oiled waste 
or Eimllar material quite closely to theazle journal^ In 
snch manner [thataettling or packing will not caose it 
to leave the journal, Wot rather to bear all the more 
cloaely, to insure constant lubrication without w&Qte of 
the luhrlcanL 

— — •-#-• 

AaHIOITLTUE&L INYXNTIOm. 

A combined pulverizer and plow has 

been patented by Mr, Daniel W. Evans, of tjims, Dako- 
ta Tar. Combined with tbe plow \& a aeriee of vertically 
adjustable colters, with a series of narrow plows ex- 
tending between the colterSf with pnlverizlnj; devices 
between the coltere and main, plow^ and other novel 
featnres, tocntthe furrow slices Into strips, pulverize 
them, and then tnro themunder. * 

A cheek row corn planter has been pa- 
tented by Messrs. John F. Scott and Oliver W. Ches* 
net,, of 'Pempleton, Ind. It ia so made that the seed- 
dropping mechanism and the markers will h^ operated 
by tlie revolution of the axle, while the mechanism cau 
lie readily thrown out of gear, and the markers readily 
adjusted, abonld the crosa rows get out of line, so that 
theplantiing can be done in accorate check row. 

A potato planter has been patented by 

Mr. Charliee C. Mave8,of SastDavenport, Iowa. It isa 
machine in wbicb tbe mecbauism for gathering and de- 
positing the potato seed is carried by an auxiliary 
frame whose position is easily controlled by means of a 
lever, aud the machine Is bo conatmcted tbat the pota- 
toes may be planted either in hillBordrins, and thatlhe 
space between the hills may be varied, as also the die- 
tance between the eeed.wben tbe potatoes ate planted 
In drills. 

».«.« — .. , -^ ' 

HISCeLIANXOUS HrVEKTIOHS. 

A sign has been patented by Mr. George 

H. Kitchen, of New York city. Thtc^lDVeutioo relaiea 
to IKnminated signs where opal glass is need tofotm 
the letters, and glass boll's eyes for ornamenting, and 
conaistB in the means of holding the huira eyes in place 
Id the body of the eig*, and In the means of forming 
the letters with tbe glass. 

A steam generator has been patented 

by Mr. William P. Crater^ of Salamanca, N. Y. It con- 
sists of two water tanks placed one above another, con- 
iiecl«4 byplpce and surrounding a fire f^rate, flre pot, 
and aelf.feedert with a peculiar draught arrangement,- 
Ikeiog simple in coostraction aud designed to generate 
eteam rapidly without using much fuel. 

An elevator and perambulator for in- 

Talids hae been patented by Margaret Hammond^ of 
Port Madifi^Uf Washington Territory. It consists of a 
main frame with wheels^ elevating devices^ framed or 
bars with wheels and ciampa, and other novel featnres, 
whereby a patient can be raised from be4l and carried 
to any part ot the bonse on the arms of the machine, or, 
by applying the large wheels^can be conveyed'^ distance 
or over rough roads. 

An article of jewelry has been patented 

by Mr. Jetbro C. Cottle, of New York city. Tbis^nven- 
tion covers an improvement in oroamental pins for necic 
ecarfSf handkercbiefat etc., embodied in the form of an 
insect or bird made of gold, silver, or other suitable 
metal, the feet or claws serving to attach tike pin, which 
is acted on by a concealed spring, the wings serving as 
levera to overcome tbe tensionof the spring, to separate 
the claws, to detach the articls from clothing. . 

Ag&s burner attachment has been pat- 
ented by Hr.Francia S. Mills, of Pittsburg, Pa.' The 
invention cooststa In inclosing the broad thin sheet of 
fiame of a burner, for one-thini or more of its height, 
with anohlonf or elon^ted cage, the twosides opposite 
tbe flat sides of the dam^ having small interstitial per- 
forations, through which air is drawn in against tbe 
Same, the ends opposite the edges of the flame being 
closed. 

A gate hinge has beeo patented by Mr. 
David J. Olinger, of ^oson, Tex, The upper hinge 
TBay 1>e of any soitable constmcton permitting the gate 
i6tlBe.6Ught1y on belof; operated, but the baaejiinge ia 
made with a dish-like attachment to the poet, the in- 
oUjl^ of whirh on either side have to be traveled by a 
tecUon attached to the f^ate as tbe intter is opened or 
ebnt,, there being also notches on either side of the pest 
attachment which hold the gate in poaition when fully 
opened. 



"^u^ine^B anb ^^er^onaL 



7Vi£ charge fiJT lK$crtioii under this lUad U One DoUor 
aliKtJor eachirugrilon; at(mteiuMwor<is to aline. 
Adt^rU^rrusnfy mtttt M rxeived at ptfbiieati^ntifici 
QseaHyoi Thuttday tnomiAff to oppearir^n^t iMve. 



Metallic Pattern letters and Fiiraresto put onpat- 
t«rns of caatlnxo. Knisbt A. 8on. Seneca Falla, N, T. 

Wanted— To open negotlatloua with some party or 
flma who control and are now engaged Id, or wish to be- 
come engaged In tbe mannf aclureof Kood salable ardclee 
that consume steel In ^uantltlles. One having an estab- 
lished bustoeas that could be moved would be preferred. 
The location would command tbe very beet mitural gae 
aod raUrosd facllltlea, and Is near a steel works tbat has 
been using the gas for years. Partler ofl'erlDg something 
to be made of 6tc«i (tiat would be nrtw and salable win 
beconsidered. Address a T. 8., P. O. box 191. Pltta- 
burg. Pa. 

Wanted— To mannfactnre on royalty patented arti- 
cles capable of being made In tltn or other light metals, 
fiaardo n &. Ennls, SU Rlver8treet,Troy, N. T. 

Territorial rtghte in thoroughly tested procew for 
making btone, brlok.and marble. StroDgeotteatlinonlAU. 
More than five yeara' teat In Cbfcaxo. Baltimore, and 
elsewhere. Immenae proSts. Addrete Weems Stoneand 
Marble Co., i&i DeArborn St^ Cblca«e, HI. 

The wofuUrfSti Suce^A 
of ClaremODt Colony ia due to the unusual inducementa 
offered by J. F. Mancba, Claremont, Va. 

**8ome said, 'John, print it;* otherasaid, *Not ao.' 
8ome saidiMt might do good:' others said, 'No.^** 
It the dlsooverer of Dr. 8age'B Calarrh Remedy bad 
shared the senseless prejudloes of a certain elasg of Phy- 
slclaos, he would have ref uaed to print the good news, to 
proclaim tothe world the glorious tldtogs thatao Infalli- 
ble remedy for that most loathsome dieeaae. catarrh, 
bad been discovered. Bot he advertised. llberHlly, and 
the result 'hue justlQed htm In the course he pur&ued. 
Dr. sage's Catarrh Remedy never falls. All druggists. 
I lAnk Btittng and Wheels. Link BettM.Co., Chicago. 

For Sale- Shop, Foandry, Boiler, Engine, etc. Price, 
12,000. Address PlowWorka, Ghent, N. T. 

Mectaanic^a Own Book. Fall instructions for draw- 
ing, casting, founding, forging, BOlderlQg, carpentry, 
carving, poUsblog wood and melale, turiifog, retiflng. etc. 
702 pases; 1.420.1l]nstratjoos. 9^3^, pest paid, E.&ir.N. 
Spon.SSMnimy St., K. T, 

Soilen for sale. -^EH^ieiient , StduUt, S^cffnd-katui. 

Plain Taifuiarf BorizontalBiXi^i, 
OnelOOH.P..&'ilSVd" tubes.lGCa 
TwoSO H. P., 6' X 17', 8" tubes, each. IttSO. 
Two 7S H. P., 4X' z 15', 3''tuhea.e«ch.CflC!5. 
Two eo H, P„ iKi Ifi'.S*' tabee, each, »*00l 
Three «0B. P.,4'iW,8" tubes, eaob. SBOO, $32&, and 
♦35a 
Fonr45 H. P.. 4' xlS'. S" tubea.|27&.t800. 9830, and tSSa 
One40 H. R.4' x 33',«7l. 
One30l£.F.,t3Ba 

Three ICSO H. P., Corliss, 3''' tubea,.each |90a 
!rhreel2SH.P,.3"aat»DetsBdtuI>ea,eaflh. $S7& 
OnelOOH. P.. V'^tnbes, tSW. 
One eo H. P., 2H" tubes. $««. 
One 25 H. P.. 2H'' tubes. $900. 

'i;hree 100 H. R, V tube?, fdOO, lO&g, and tODO. 

Three 90 H. P., SA't abea. $66a *W1Q. and »W)Ol 

irxve m H. P..3" tubes, 9600 each. 

One M U. P.. S " tubes, $57fi. 
Eogines and boilers, portable and statloaaryt wood- 
working and general machinery. 8ead for esttuaatea, 
stating exactly what you want. W. E. Drew, agent U. C- 
Forsalth Mach. Oo^, Manchester. $1. H. 

Tbe EaQroad OasettA, handsomely illustrated, pub- 
lished weekly, at 73 Broadway, New Vork. Spcotmeo 
copies free. 8end for eataJiegue of railroad books. 

Friction Clutches from $2.25 on. J. C. Blevney. New- 
ark, N.J. 

J^tjleOf^m for JTofcftai. 
AntUmaguetlc sbtelds— an absolute Drot<ectton from all 
electric and magnetle influences, (!ao be applied to tmf 
watch. Experimental exhibition and explanation at 
**Antt-Magoetlc Shield & Watch Caae Co.." 18 John 8t., 
New York. F. S. Giles, Agt., orGlte&Bro.&Co.,€bte«go, 
where fall assortment of Antll-Macoetlc Watchea can 
be had. 8end for fall descriptive circular. 

Ckff^y^-I^tutic^ Machiuiet, emhnKing lathe work, 
vise work, drills and drilling, taPe aud dies, hardening 
and tempering, the making uud uae of tools, tool grind- 
ing, marking out worit, etc. By Joshua Rose. Illustrated 
by 3a( eoeravlnge. Thirteenth edtttoo, thoroughly re- 
vised and In sre&t part rewritten. In one volume, 12mo, 
4S9 pages, S2.£0. For sale by Muno & Co.. 361 Broadway. 
New York. 

Concrete patents for sale. X. L. Ransome, S. F., Cal. 

Woodworking Machinery of all kinds. TheBentel & 
Marsedant Co., 116 Fourth 8t., Hamilton, O. 

A CatecMem on tAe LoeomoHvt, ByM, N. Forney. 
WltblQplutes, 22?engr«vltig3, and 000 pages. t^LfiO. Sent 
on receipt of the price by Munn &Ca.,d6l Broadway, 
New York. 

Gnild ^ Garrison's Steam Pump Works, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Pumps for liquids, alTi aadgaaes. New Ctat&Insae 
now ready. 

The Enowlee Steam Pump Works, 44 Waahlogtoo 
St., Boston, and 93 Ijlberty St. New York, have last la- 
sued anew cataloxne. in which are many new and im- 
proved forms of Pumping Haohlneryof tbe single and 
duplex, steam and 4>ower type. This catalogue will be 
mailed free of oharge on applloatlen. 

Presses A X>le«. Ferracnte Mach. Co.. Bridgetoo, N. J. 

Nickel Plating.— Sole mannfactnrers cast nickel an- 
odes, pure nickel salts, polishing composttloDB.etc. IIOO 
*'lAttit M'onder." A perfect Electro Plating Machine. 
Sotemannf aoturere of tbe new Dip Lacquer ICristallne. 
Complete outfit for platlng.etc. Hassoo, Van Winkle A 
Co., Newark. N.J..'and 92aDd 94 Liberty St. New York. 

Iron Planer, Lathe, Brill, and other machine tools of 
modemdealgn. NewHavenMfg.Co.,NewlIaven,Conn. 

WrinJclei and B^tA^te. Compiled from the Soiknti- 
VicfAMXEiicAN. A oollecttOD of practical suggestions, 
prvKresses, and directions, for the Meohanlc, EDglneer. 
Farmer, and Housekeeper. With a Color Tempering 
Boale, and nnmerOcswoodengrHvlogB, ReTtseid by Prof. 
Thoraton and Vander Weyde, and Bngloeert Buel and 
RDM. ISiDO, cloth, tLQO. ifor sal« t>y Mann & Co.. 361 
Broadway, New York. 

The Improved TVydranlfe Jacte, Pnnehes. and Tube 
VxpuLders. li.DudKw[L«a40olmiU?lA3t.iN«w YorK. 



If an invention baa not been pateoLed in the United 
01at«s for more than one year, it may atlll bepatentedlu 
Ganada, Cost for Caoadian patent. $40. Tanious ether 
foredgn pat^nta may alao be obtained. For tnetruotlon-i 
address Munn & Co., ScibntIVIC Amxrxcax patent 
agency, 301 Broadway, New York. 

Cortla P»Aaiire Regalator andSte&m Trap. See p. 14S. 

New Portable & Stationary Centering Chncks for rapid 
cen;«>Ki)g. Price llsl free. Cuahmao Chnck Co.. Hartford, 
Conn. 

HoistingBngineB. D. Frisb i e & Co,, New York dty. 

Tight and Slack Barrel Machinery a specialty. John 
Greenwood & Co., Rochester, N.Y. See lllus. adv., p. 28. 

Sapplemeat Catalegue.^Persotia In pursuit of infor- 
mation of any special engineering, mechanical, or seleu- 
tla<isubjeet, can have catalogue of cnntents of the 3ci- 
KKTiric Amxuicai? SuppLBH^yr Aeot to them free. 
The aiTPPLBMENT coutalna lengthyartlcles embra«ln!{ 
tlie whole rangeof orglnesrlng, mecbanlcs*and physical 
aoienoe. Address Munn & Co.. Publishers. New York. 

Catarrh. Curtd. 
Aolergyman, aSteryears of auHerlQgf rom that loathsome 
disease, catarrh, aod vainly trylog every known remedy, 
at lABt found a presorlptlon which completely cured and 
saved bim from death. Any su06rer from this dreadfnl 
dlseaae sending a Helf^addressed stamped envelepe to 
Dr. Lawrence., 212 Eaat 9th St.. New York, will veceive 
the redpef ree of rJiarge. 

Iron and Ste«l Wire, Wire Itope, Wire Rope Tram- 
ways. Trenton irou Company, 'frenton, N. J. 

Lick Telescope and all smaller sizes built by Warner 
if, Swasey, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Send for catalo^e of Scientific Books for ssle by 
Munn & Co , 361 Broadway. N. Y. i^ree on application. 



TO INV£irT0B8, 

Aoex^rlenoe of forty years, and the preparation of 
more than one hundred Ihonssnd appllcatlonafor pa. 
tenta at home and abroad, enable us to understand tbe 
laws and practllce on both continents, and to possess un* 
equaled facilities for procuring patents everywhere. A 
synopsis of tbe patent lawaofthe Colted States and all 
f oretRii countries may be had on appllcatlioo, and persons 
contemplating the securing of pateota, either at home or 
abroad, are Invited to write to this office for prices, 
which are low. In accordance with the times end our ez- 
toislVB tacillLlefl for cond acting tbe bualne^. Address 
UUMN AC0..»Uce8aKNTmc Au ericas, wt Bread- 
way, New York. 



INDEX OP INVENTIONS 

For wblcli Letters Patent of tbe 
United States 'were Granted 

December 14, 1888, 

AND BACH BEABINC; THAT DATB. 

[Beenotea^^end of lliit about ooplesof ttie»e p&teDtfl.] 



AdverClBloK «ard, T. W. Bartholomew 

^dvertlftioff cat-d.W. Homan. 

Asrtcultna^ ImplemeDt, J. M. LaodBB.... 

AlT OT other, eauea. automatic hydraulic com- 

presAor of, H. C. Bolf 

Air ventilfttOT, warm.freah, A. MoArtbur 

Alarm. See Ballwaytr&ij) alarm, 

ADDUDclater, eleotrlcalL Q. E. Painter 

AoTlfrand clamp, hOTBeBhoe. J, A. KlcbardB. 

Asbestos Bbeet. It. K. MartlQ 

AUffer, eartb, J. 8. Stephen 

Axle bMIiOKs. oompoallloD of matter for tbe 

manufacture of, Q.F.GcdIey «.. 

Azlebox.car, L. PlnXBt 

Axle box. car. d. RStlnard.. 

Ballog preas, B. Furrier.... 

Balloon, O.tr. Uartuoc 

Bftllot box««, refflBterlDjr and caocellDg mecbea- 

iem for, W. T. Butler 

BatterleB. See Galvanic battery. Secondary bat- 
tery. 

Beartrap. O. Qravel 

BeaTtnjrtor velocipedes, J. Enous 

Beef preBB. corned, C. Eoeber 

Beer apparatua, preaBure ra:ulator for. J. G. 

Mueller 

Bell. door. F. Sanderson 

Binder, aatomatlc, Wbiteley & Bayley t.. 

BiC. See Bridlelblt. 

Bit bolder, R, W. Perry 

Blacking atand or cafle, J. C. Blcren 

Blower, fireplaee, H. F. Baker 

Blowlno enelne. P. L. Velmer 8&<,2T9. 

Board. See Quide board. Wa»>iboard. 

Boiler. Bee Locomotire beuer. Bteam boiler. 

Wash boiler. 
Bolt blanks, machine for tbreadlnff and pvlntln^. 

B. N. iBeecher .. ,. 

Book coverB, mechanism for lettering, C. H. 

Shrader 

Boot, M. E. Taber 

Boot'or Bboeaole. W, W. Keld.. 

Boot or shoe vamp, B. G. Salomon 

Bootor shoe, rubber. J. L. Thomson 

Boots, attacblOK wear pvlnta to rubber, J. L. 

ThomBOn — 

Boots orahoeB, making sewed. Q. W, WlUey 

Borlnx machine. J. P. bumham. 

Bottile stopper, B. K. Dorwart. ....... ., 

Bottle waabtn^ machine, Stotz & HeuBch 

Box. Bee Axle box. Butter box. 

Box. M. Marx - 

Bracelet clasp, K. Waillneer 

Bracket. See Lamp bracket. 

BrAke. See Kallway brake. Belf-actlsjc brake. 

Sewlnffmachlne brake. Teblcle'brake. 

Brick machine, J. Creamer 

Brick machine. W.L.QregB .....354,129, 

Brick machine, C. W. lUymoud 

Bridcne. guard for pivot or BWlnfC, W. Deveraux.. 

Bridle bit, Q.M. Hubbard 

Bridle bit cor^, covArlnjrfor, J. Stanley 

Bucket, milk, G. C. Bovey 

Bnokle, back band, 1.^. Hewitt 

Bullet mould, A. Jewett..... 

Burner. See Gaa Burner. l,arapburner. 

Butter box, J. N. Hayee 

Bnlter worker. E.W. Crouch 

Bnttoner. C. B. CookeriT 

Button, collar or ciilT, il.li. Summa. 



3M.ni 

3M,3M 

354,«r 
8SJ,l(a 

361.2% 
3M.1S6 
iB4.3te 

351,41b 
35»,51V 
364.413 

SM.MC 



3M,470 
364,411 

3M.4» 
854 .IT6 
ad4.K9 
351,4&S 



354.(l9;i 

354,a»l 
354.360 
3S4,2« 
354.319 
a54.49C 

354.4»S 
36»,4« 



354.7W 
351.278 



SM.464 
354,187 
3M,3t6 
364,105 
3&4.<74 
35*,aB 
8.'il,3»i 
364.417 
364,422 

964,415 
864.604 
354.906 



Button taateneri, packing case for, £'. H. Bloh- 

ards 854,234. 864,285 

Buttonhole stltcblnir laacblneB, sropplnur median- 

lem for.U. H. Cummlngs. %..,. 851,103 

Can wat«rinK machine, Merr«ll St Lennox. ......... 854 J06 

Candy. CbrlstmaB tree, C. Grimm il54.S09 

Cane, atrlpping and cleaning suxar, H. A. Hushee 354,510 

Car coupliii«, J. Booth . . . . : 354,301 

Car coupling, W. H. Kaltenbeck VA^St 

Car coupIIhk, G. C. McEitterick ttol... 851.385 

Car coupUniia, lluk lifter for, J. H. Huber StMM 

Car platform, F. D. Spalding... 864,443 

Car seat, E. B. Goelet 354,117 

Carirbee], Peckbam & Liuss 854,214 

Cara, grip fer traction, J. 8. l.uke 864,479 

Cart>on conductorij, manufacture of, T. A. Edison S64ill0 

Card, fancy fihOK. C. Keroltz .....364.152 

Card for playing frames, H. C. Elrk 354.4M 

Carrliage and waxon Jack, Bower & Evans 354.3S5 

Carrliaxe Jack, G.C. Bovey 854,382 

Cartrldi;e extractor, J. C. Macmillan 354,157 

Cartridge loading macdlne, J. E. Steele 354.3M 

Cartridge pack. reloading, D. E. Weaaon.... 354.454 

Caeh rsKlsler, T. Muuuell 854,483 

Casting, core for. J. H. Whitney 854.397 

Chain, W. A. Peck 3*4,436 

Chair. See Photographer's cbatr. Fl&tio cbalr. 
Bsllway chair. 

Chart, anatomical, J. T. White (r) 10.180 

Cheese cuttlinx device. H. M. Handiilu' 851.410 

Cheese making apparatus, i\ Gehhardt ....... 854314 

Chopper. See Cotton chopper. 

Chuck; lathe, A. H. Stetson . 851.268 

Clear bunching machine, W. M, Stelnle 864,4M 

Clftarmacbine, W. M. Stelnle 364,491 

Clamp. See Floor clamp. Rubberdnm clamp. 

Claap. See Bracelet clasp. 

Cleuner. See Horae and cattlle cleaner. 

Clock. B.F. Flint 354,123 

Clock, calendar, a. W. Halph 354.S(£ 

Clocks, circuit breaker for electric, V. Hlmmer... . 364,625 
Clod crusher, pulveriser, and seeder, D. Lubln — 361,613 
Closet. See Water closet. 

Clutch, friction, E. L. Street 354,49* 

Clutch, frlotiion, E. Salomon 354.242 

C*ck. stop and waste, J. H. JolinBon 364.148 

Coiree pots, float and percolator for, M. Sbeaban.. 854.4tn 

Coffln, A.K. Ranek 354.437 

Collar, horse, 1. Bergman ., 361.317 

Commode, arm. C.G. Udell S6t.J64 

Condenser for pyroligneous add. J. A. Mathlen... 364,330 

Cooker. BtBom, H. P. Roberts 364,240 

Cepper matte, treating and desllverlzlnit, J. J. & 

R. Creoke 854,182 

C«m Bheller, C. Roberts 864.239 

CoFfet tastenlDR, a K. Pevey 364,318 

Cotton gloa, combined feeder and hopper for, J. 

P.Eetterlngham 364,333 

Cutten chopper. 0. W. Rykard 364.619 

Cotton press, A. D. Thomaa 364,370 

Coupling. See Carconpllns. ThlUcwupUiij;. Ve* 

hide coupling. 
Croriber. Bee Clod cmsher. 

CuSfastener, T.E. Barrow 364,278 

CulffRttener.S.P.Wtlloox 364,288 

CuHholder, F.J. Hall S54,471 

Cultivator, D.M. Bourne 864.8S1 

Cultivator, G.W. Broun JI&1,388, 354.388 

Cultivator, J. r. Smith 364380 

Curtain fixture, C.Woblera 864,389 

CnttlDjr and forming machine, rotary, H. Uorten. 

son 86I,U8 

Cyclomeler, G . H. Gould 864,128 

Dam, subterranean water collecting, D. H. Valen- 
tine. Sik^K 

Humpers, apparatus for opening and closing, R. 

J. Fllnn Wjat 

Dandy roll. W.U. Pool «51.4«« 

U!reet~BCting engine. C. C. Wortblogton 351,631 

Dlsb washer, C. B. Saunders 3&4,M9 

Dilching and KradlDK machine, H. Henderson.... 354,136 

Door Check. A. McNicol 9*4,336 

Boors, device for llftlUK, H. Busalng .%4,4«1 

Door plate, Johnson & Mosher 354,IS& 

Door spring, F, L.Becker 36i.0ar) 

Urauxlit equallier, W. H. EUndall 36t,326 

Driill stock. R. J. Baker.. 354,<ie6 

Drying apparatus, J. H. Lorlmer 964,199 

Dyelnir apparatus, L. Weldon 351.281 

Easel, plaque, B. B. Pay . . . 364.211 

Eaves troiiith and girder therefor, B. B. Baker. . . . 864,372 
Eleotrlo circuits, resistance block for, M. M. M, 

elBttery.. 964,257 

Electric out-out, C. Eschwet 354,466 

Electric lightluK system^ dUlrlbntlng applance 

for. E. W. Rice. Jr 154,333 

Electric machloeireRUlator,^dynamo. E Thomsan 354,273 
Electric machines, armature for dynamo. D. Wil. 

ItaiosoD 854,292 

ElectrJc motor, N. H. Kdgerton 364.111 

KTectrlcal conductor, E.H. Johnson 354,320 

Electrical conduit, nndertiround, B. Williams 864,290 

Blectrical distribution, apparatus for.M. M. M. 

Slattery 354,258 

Electricity by means of eieaondary batteries, ap- 
paratus for the distribution of, E. Thomt^on... 861,272 
Elevator cars, safety attachment for, C. E. Wblt- 

tier 3B4'«6 

Enddate, W. A.Pharee 864,341 

End gate, wagon, W. Beckwith 354,098 

Engine. Bee Blowing engine. DIreet.actloft en- 
gine. Pumping engine. 
Engines, apparatus for stopping, Fotheivill & 

Brlggi,,Or 864,4«8 

Explosives, composition for neutralising fumes 

of,T. Price... 354,345 

Eitractor. See Cartridge extiacter. 

Eyeglaasea, G. W. Haacellund 364,317 

Fauret, bottle. C. T, Jones 854,ia(» 

Feed water beater. W. Herd 864.194 

Feed water heater. H.Wilson 364,933 

I'eed waterregulator. Cook &Tboens 364,009 

Feeder, time st^ck.L. Deguenant 364,309 

Fence, M. J. Gordon 354.40S 

Fence coupler, wire. W. M. Clow 3M.09b 

Fence. flood.G. W. Martin aH,ail 

Fence gate, wire, W. IM. Clow .lai.WS 

Fence machine, wire. Fletcher A Tatnm, jr 364,118 

Fender. B.y. Butts 354.501 

Fibers from leaves, etc. machine for obtaining, 

G. Sanford 364.244 

Filter, J.W.Hyatt 364,143 

Firearm, magazine, G.E.AIbee... :t64.3Tl 

firearm, magazine, W. Mason ... .364.327 t* 394,329, .361,427 

rire escape, F. B. Peters. 354,217 

Floor elamp, 0. P. Hill 364,418 

Flue cap. F. E. Heinle 864,198 

nne cleaner, adjustable steam, G.G. McLaugh- 
lin '. sstsni 

Flosbing tank, Atkinson & Murphy ?MA» 

Folding BCreen, H. C. Triipp 354,460 

Foot power stand, C. E. Steresa 854,446 

ITrame. See Lahtera frame. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



12 



^mntxfxt ^mtvitm. 



[January i, 1887, 



Eiwit aatherInK shears, L.H. TltuB SW.SM 

FurjQAce, See H^tlDC furnace. 

Furnace |[rat«,C.T. Schosu SM.;U8 

f'uraacetrate.J. V^egtie iUJ>2i 

Furs, tapinit, C. Theinert, - Sj),3«3 

GalraDic battery, piimary, C. B. O'Keeoao, , ..,. ;^,[31 
Gaft, apparatUB far roaDnfacturlog illumiilatluf; 

- iBid heiitlDK. F. B. Forster 8»I,I35 

Gaa barber, petroleum, A. llaesner 354.1:E 

Gs» antiire, revolving, J, J. Seldscliec. aM.So2 

Gas, grate for buroioK natural, E. Bauriie 9M,380 

Gate. See End gate, i'ence gate. Hallway Kate. 
Slldlni; Kate. 

Gate.W.K.AIbeitson 3MJM 

Gate. W,J.DouRlas,,.. oSl,l»7 

Gate, KnKel & Hopkins SM.Ud 

Generator. &«e Steam generator. 

Glass.tlldind, J. Pratt X^t^ 

Glass vase. A. H. Ilelsey 3M,ilt) 

Graf tlDK tool. C. W. Holt 3aU2» 

Grain hinder, J. r, SelberlinK 35»,2S1 

Grat« for furnace:^, boilers, etc.. rocking or ratat- 

Ina.J.R. Keed 35i,23» 

Grlndlug cutlery, mechanism far. C. E. Stevens-.. SH,44T 

Gniudlui mill. G. & A. Baymand iii.ZX 

Grlindlngmill. A.W.Stevens,. SM.446 

Guldeboard. W. W. Case Sa4,SB 

Gun, breecb-loadinK. I^. N. Walker 3^,462 

Halter, chain, J. W. CiilHe 16i,SH 

Hame fastener, D. G. Miller .' S5i,m 

Hammers, attachment for trip. ti. H. Hatborn.. . . 3Sl,19a 
Handle for aciewdrivers and other toals. J. C. 

Spencer 5**.'^ 

Harrow, J. A. Spruuger 3W,3S2 

Harrow, J. Underwood ........,, ^.iST 

Harvester, F. Cook S,t4,:B7 

Harvester. D. Houser S5»,«l 

Hay and cotton press, M. S. Caleman , , . 3S4,304 

Hay press. A.J. Beaiuan ^6^,1^7 

Hay rake, horse. J. H. Siraf oos.. ^1<>1,2^ 

Heater. See Feed water heater. 

Heating apparatus, thermometrlc regulatar for, 

J. Triieb. ., ■ioiiSS 

HeatiUK furuace. G. A. Russell 3J4,4S9 

Heel blank, sprluc. K. F. Rsytaand. 2d SM,3?T 

Heel nalUnff machine and methad uf attaching 

beels,J,B, Gardner 354.1^5 

H«el protector, •. B. North SM.aiO 

Heel trimming machine, A. F. Smub 3^,443 

Hinge, gate. G. C. Bovey 3it,3S3 

Holder. See Bit holder. CuIT balder. Horse 

blanket holder. 
Hoak. See Snap book. 

Horseand cattle clwaner, F. A. Jewett Si>l,:i4& 

Horae blanket hulder, I.. A . White )i,i,mi 

Hose carrittife. Darr & illll .. 3S1,4(15 

Hose carriage, E. S. McNamara Sjl.aiu 

Hot water apparatus, S. F. Collina.. ,. 3r>i,S0i5 

Hubs, sand bund for wheel. CO. Chaplin 8^,181 

Hydranlle method aod machinery. N. B. Eldred. . 3^112 
Ice planers , BCrftper att.achment for, W. J. Tem- 
ple SS1.36I 

Ice tonga, C. H. Moore JH.iU 

Indicator. See Number Indicator. Reservoir la* 
dlcator. 

Induction call, E. Thomson .. Sbi,T^i 

InKota. Kulde for moulds for compound, E. 

Wheeler iitXi 

loiector. S. Borland. .Crf.lTti. :15«.1T7 

Insulating Jotnt, D, Williamson S54,rtl 

Jack. See Carrliajce jack. CarrlaK^ aud wucao 
Jack. 

Jewelry, hinE8 joint for, G. Becker iii,iiS 

Jalnt. See Insulating Joint. Locket Joint. Rail 
Joint. 

Journal bearluK, lubricating, E. L. Mansfleld a'><,m 

Kite, E. J. Colby SM.088 

Knife. See Shoe knife. 

Enlt fabrics, machine for nnltln);, W.Beattie 351,371 

Knitting machine, J. ByBeld 351,it8 

Knlttling machines, at*p motion for. Brown & 

Laaher 3ij,3iT 

Kuoblock, A. Hltt S>i,473 

lAce machines. lusertinfc them therein, and 
threadlnfr tlie carrlsR s. machine for remov* 

Ing bobbins from carrlacciiof, R Weiss 2M.3S0 

Ladder, McDonouxh 4 Cox !it.3K 

Lamp bracket. S.H. Smith ;., :tij,20t 

I,amp burner, Stiir ft Watrous 35I.3ST 

Lamp burners, flame regulator and extinguis^ber 

for. Stiff & Watrous :»t,3K8 

Lamp.car, W, Westlake ^1,155 

Lamp, railway alenal, W. H. Hunt aJl,H3 

I^mps and otherarticlea. suspension device for, 

an. Lymao ^,514 

Land anchor, C. C Pratt S5I.343 

Lantern, C. Bergener — ^^.I^t 

Lantern frame. P. KaczerowskI 3^4,1;;1 

Leather finishing machine, A. H. Bowers 351, 17A 

Letter boxes, metallic time card for, B. M. Keed.. ;i54.41'.> 

Llferaft, F. W, Brewster SOJ.aac 

Lifter. See Trausom lifter. 

Liniment. A. W.l.nnU.. 3»4,l25 

Lock. See Knab lack. Nut lock. 

Lock and key, E.J.Colby 351,«?i 

LocketJalnt. J. T. Inmao 334.144 

Locomotive ash pan. A. S. Miller............... 3^,li^^j 

Locomotive boiler, J, E. Wootten. ,. , 354,3,1 

litwroller. L. G. •rme ; . . . 354,171 

Loom forweavljQg chenille or fur pile fabrics, H. 

Skinner ao4,» 

Loom for wea Ing flcrnred dauble pilefahrlcs.T, 

I. Shuttleworth ., , . 354..^* 

l«6rieator. W. Loeffler. SM.I jii 

I«t>rlcator, P. L. Scbmitt X*.JSS 

MeaauriUK and packa^lnj; seeds, machine for, J. 

C.Brown 354,0m 

If 4dlc^nal tablets, etc., machine for making, C. L. 

Jensen 3i4,3ra 

Mercurial resulAti)r fardamper^, etc R. J. Fllnn, 

SM,120, 3o4.ia 
Mercurial re^julator, pressure and vacuum, P. J. 

Fllnu ,354.1» 

Mutal cuttinKmachlne. J. n.McDoucal Sbi,^ 

Metal forifluf , cutting, or pancblnK maehlue. R. 

A. Hardcastle 554,411 

Meter, See Water meter. 

MIcroscoplst's tnrntable, E. H. Griffith 891,130 

Mill. 8eeGniodlusmtll. Roiling mill. Sawmill. 

Mould. See Bullet mould. 

Moulds, material for making, R. G. Hanford, Jr... SUMS 

Moulding machine, sand, W, W. Drummond 3M,1ce 

NonldInK macblues, side aprlnf; for, C. Reafstabl. ^1^4,339 

Money packages, safety caae for, K, J. Brooks 351,459 

. Motor, See Electric motor. 

Mowerand reaper,B. Butler 354,500 

Nal!,H,W. Llbbey.... 354,154 

Nalt head, orcamental, J. W. Flynn 354.1£i 

Necktleattachmeut, B. B . Scplly 354,25» 

Metforhorees.S, Flchtner 354,406 

Ntimb«r Indtcator, electrical, OuU & BcaMergood.. S54,505 

Nut lock, C. 0. McBrlde .-. 354,.333 

Oils, apparatus for extracting, C. Bauiaean«il.... 554,'J»U 



Ore sampling machine, W-MoDermott... ...,,..... 351,203 

Ore Trastier, J. L. Deam 354,1« 

•ven, baker's, •.Liberty 354,lfe 

Pulls, device for holding milk, M. K, Randall 3M,43S 

Pamtin^ carriage bow slats, dipping tank fur, J. 

W. & J. W. Sherwood SSJ,*4I 

Pan. 1 9e« I^acomotlive iish pan. 

Pantaloon P'»t«;t<n-,C. Sandford 3it,2jf) 

Paper, etc., bleaching vegetable fiber tor the 

maouf uctura of, J, A. Just 4t oi. 354,477 

Paper pulp, iiuinulnctur« of, G. E. Moore.. 354,432 

Papers, display and retail device for fancy, D.J. 

, O'Sulllvan S54.208 

Patterns, machine far ptfrtoratinx, C. P. Urease,... 354.4^& 

PhotoRrapher s chair. J. U. Smith S5i,^J 

t*h(itographlc platen, apparatns for waablOK, H. 

C. Price »1.544 

Piano case, upllKbt.S. La Gr&9sii 351,328 

Piano.cbair. spring back, C. K. OavU- 3^1,15.") 

Pick, mmer'a, J. M. Matlliews 354,331 

Picker teeth, machine for llattenine the shaok^ 

of, W. Cmbb 354,403 

Picture frame Attachment, Gerber & Nicholae — 3:54,315 
Pipe. See Water claset overdcw pipe. 

Pipe wrench, J . Leib 354,107 

Pipes.etc.mouldformakingclay.C.A.Perry 354,2w; 

Planter. C.B.Ferrel I 35t.4»5 

Planter, <;be<!k row corn, Scatti Chesnut... 3M:85I 

Planter, p»tata.C.C. Slaves 354.C!3 

Platform, See Car platform. 

Plow. W.J. Ball .' SU,*K 

Plow, J, Pentreatb 354,21.5 

Plow and cultivator, aombined, Gi. W. Anderson.. 351,102 

Plow, sulky, C , E, Tc.wer 354.449 

Power presses, adiustable frame for, A.H.Merrl* 

man •. 3M,10» 

Power presses, automatic feed mechanism for, 

W-Leist 351.430 

Preserving fruits, W. JI. Davis 354.184 

Press. See Baling press. Beef press. Cotton 
press. Hay press. Hay a4id cotton pregg. 

Printer's quolQ, A. L. Davis 361,306 

Printing; presses, delivering apparatus for wet, I 

M. P. lleyer SA.S3S 

Projec-tile, T. G. Beuuett 3H,3'it 

Pratector. See Ileel protector. Pantaloon pro., 

tector. 
Fulveriaer and plow, combined, D. W. Evans...... 354^ 

Pump, oil, C, Ulrsch 3il.41il 

PuDoplDg ensioe, W. A. P. Blcknell ,. 3S4,(e)i 

Rail Joint, Lewies & Dodjie..., 354,4:16 

Rails, rejiairiiiK, ij". Strattan 354,4:13 

Itailway brake, E. D. BaineB 354,401 

Railway, cuhle, J. P. Hunt 364,141 

Itailwar chatr, J, M. J'ennerty 354,117 

Railway pate, A, BriksOQ.. 354,403 

Rallwar siRnal, G. l>. Bnrt*u 354;4(i0 

Hallway signal, dutamatlc. N. M. Holdaworth 3M,1ST 

Hallway spike, J. M. Fennerty 3,''4.110 

Railway tie. y, O, Johnson 354.147 

Railwa y tie, U. Morrell .,. . . 35J,4:« 

Railway train alarm. Carpenter A Tucker 3^,303 

Railways, conduit for ceble or electrical, E, Sam- 
uel ..•.....•. 35l,:«(( 

Railways, metallic cross tie far, R. s. Se* 354,230 

Rftllwuys, switch tor cable, S. A. Wltberspoon S54,'205 

Railways, etc., watertlxbt bulkhead for under- 

(trauiid. J. E. Koblnson 354,343 

Hixiu water separator, C. G. Roberts , . . , 351,2% 

Hake. See Hay rake. 

Uakeand hoe, combined, J. S. Se&tter 354,355 

llan«e closet door, F. W. i H. Born 35*,0W 

KR7or, safety, F . #.Kampf e etai 354,106 

Reaper and mower, H. 1>. Hathaway 361,191 

lleglster. See Cash ret; Ister, , 

Regulator. See Electric machine reifMlator. Keed 
waterrcROlatar. Mercurial regulator. Watch 
retfulatar. 

Reservoir indicator, S. Fraleigh J&i,509 

Roll box top, J. G. Walker 354,jr7 

Roller. See Log roller. 

Holling mi,l, S. Oufr. 354,110 

Bootlug, felt, C.A.Favel 85»,3ll 

RoollUK plate, metallic, G. Patten 354,484 

unbberdaqj clamp, •. Carpenter 3.54.?,*1 

Saddle tree, riding. J. M . Hays &>t.l35 

Sash balance. I . Mc Arthur 3M,l<i3 

Saw, Little & Stoddard 35»,3a 

Sawmill, bund, J L. Gage ,354.407 

Sawmill (iog,J. C.Miller 35<.a)7 

Saw swaee. J, E. Emerson 354,114 

Sawa, device for (.eltinrr, c. Morrill :J51,1CT 

Scale, automatic grain. Kslleyi Pratt 354.123 

Scraper,wheeled.tr. W.Hubbard „. ■3&t,r3 

Screen. See Koldin;: acreeti. 

Screening platea, nialilng perforated, S. H. Har- 

riOKton 354,413 

Seat. See Car seat. 

Secondary battery, Saaa & Friederlch 354.352 

Seed, removiuK fiber from cattan, W, L. Dudley. . 354,10fi 

Seedint: njacliine. D. E. McSlierry Sjl.lfu 

SeK-actlnit brake, K- V. V. Desdauits S54,STO 

Separator. S^e Itain water separator. 

Sewing machine, B. Woodward 3,'>4,4fly 

Sewing machine brake, Ottti|& zi mmrman. S54,51G 

Sewing machine plaiting attao l^nint, G. J. Cl>u- 

chois 334,131 

Sewing machine tucking attachment, G.J.Cou- 

chois. 354,100 

^ewlnx machines, buttonhale cutllnf^ aud cloth 

clampattacbment far, F.E. Schmidt 354,347 

Sewlntf Tu&cbiues, thread waTcinR attachment for, 

RIchardsou 4 Baiter. 35I,S3T 

Shears, See lYult eatherlni^ shears. Sheep 
shears. 

Sheep shears. Bills * Hamilton 354,378 

Sheet metal, cutting V-sliaped slots In, C. T. 11a- 

Bon.Jr ; ,„. 851,208 

Rheller. See Corn sheller. 

Shirt. F. Blermeister, Jr 354,375 

Shoe heelln* machine, C. W. Thomson »4,271 

ShoeknIfcW.I.. Van Meter.. 361,275 

Shoe lets, machine for treeing, C. B. HatBekl 354,139 

Shoe uppers, machine for beadlnr, C B. Hatfield. 361,IS.S 

Shoe uppers, turning Iron for, C, B, Hatfleld 3&4,lt)0 

Shoe blanks, machine for cuttlcit,H,M. Myers.... 364,17« 
Shutter bower and faatener, combined, Conuer ^ 

Perry S51,S% 

Slunal. See Hallway signal. 

SlKbs. cbalnfor portable, H, Wlllson 351.20 

Silk cocoons, treatment of tussab, H. R. ftandaH. ,3,54,23s 

Silk flber, treatment of, H, R. Randall ft5i,M3 

Sliding gate, IV. R. Patten 361.«0 

Smokestack, Simpson JtWilloi 354,256 

snap hook, safety, I. M. McKay....... 354,4311 

Soap tablet, T. E.Gardner 354,13(1 

Spark orrester, locomotive, A. Mltohell ., 364,33s 

Spinning machines, saddle for top rolls of, E. 

Dlion 354,400 

Spring. See Daor sprlug. 

Sprinkler. See Street spninkler. 

Stand. See Blacking stand. Foot power stand. 

Steam holler, A. Catcbl>*le 354,3a! 



Steam boiler, P. FttEgibbona S51,4W 

Steam generator, geetionaj, F. D. Altbause 364 Jja 

Stone dresa ing machine, F. Manning,.,, ,,,.,, ,.,.,. 3^4,20tl 
Stool and seat, 1. Baldwin... ,,,,,,,,,,.♦,,,,.,..».,. 3^4,2^^ 
Stopper. See Bottle stopper, 
St^>ve, gasoline or oil beating, J, Stubbs,,,,,,.,*,,, 361530 

Stove, heating, E. W, Anthony B54,2S7 

Stove, heatlnK,C.Phllbrick„ -.... 364,220 

Stovepipe, B. F. Caldwell-. a6*,3U0 

Stove or range door, E, W. Vau Du:8n, Jr. . , 384,451 

Street clearlnE macbine, 1. H. Randall Sbt.Zii 

Street sprlnlEler. D.Murray,.,,.,,,,,,,,,,*,,,, 864,617 

Subsoller and planting attaebment, .combined, W. 

F. Reeves -■ S51341 

Sulphur from, gulphureted hydrogen, obtntnlng, 

C. F. Claas 354,388 

Syringe tip, vaginal, C. B. LiiCklnaon 354,309 

Table. See MicroaCopist's turntable. 

Tack macbine, staple, W. F. Moody 3M,15S 

Tack atrip, (J. W. Copeland 354,462 

Tog, sample, J- Pnaey , , 3M,61B 

Tank. See Flushing tank. 

Telegraph sounder, electro^pbonetic, H. A. & H, 

A. House, Jr 3M,]39 

Telephone, W. J. Morton 351,100 

Telephone receiver, J. C. Elchmeyer... ..,„-. 351,402 

Telephone transmitter. A- W. Rose 3!«,241 

Telephones, adjustable suppaitfor, C. C, Gould... 364,4ft0 

Tetlier. W. B, Farrar.,, 354,4M 

Thermostat, electrical, R. L. Gulon 354,131 

Thill coupling, I.. Mason 3M,100 

Tie. See Railway tie. 

Tile laying miichino, J, McMulliu 351,439 

'L'ile machme, Brose & Baumgartner 351,033 

Taol, combination, J . U. Gallaway. - 354,313 

Taols, device for cooling machine, P. Vau den 

Kerchove 354,498 

Tooth. artlflclal.L.T.ShelBeld 354,356. :»4,35T 

Toy propeller. It. Teichmann ....-,. 354,2@£l 

Tracing cabinet, H- P- Richards 361,3(7 

Track laying apparatus, U,E,Jobus*n...- 361,140 

Transom lifter, R. Adams .-. . 351,296 

Trap- See Bear trap. 

Tricycle, A. Mercer 354,337 

I'rlcycle, railway, W. Hayes 354,318 

Trough. See Ifaves trouch. 
Tube. See Wick tube. 

Tubes, machine for butt welding, J, Crea 354,102 

Twist drill and auger bit. H. W, Llbbey 354,156 

Type distributing apparatus, Johnson & Low...... 351,149 

Type writing machine, E. E. Peaaock 351,213 

Valve, P.Harvey 351,414 

Valve aud beater, combined, G. H. Poar 354,231 

Valve, tank, P. White ^.285 

Vapor burner, li, S, Belden 354,300 

Vehicle brake, li. Welisch, ,. 354,2«2 

vehicle coupling. T. A. llavisou 351,31)7 

Vehicle, road, i; . W. Itussell 361,48* 

Ventilatar. See Air ventilator. 

vessels, swiUKing paddle lar, B. Doscher 361,505 

Wash board, E. EUingen 364,UB 

Wash boiler, H. C. Payne 354,212 

Washer. See Dish waaher. Ore washer. Wool 

washer. 

Waaliingmachlnerll.M.Hardgrove _.. 354,134 

Wat eh regulator, P. H. Wheeler SM,2S3 

Watch, stem-windioE and setting, J. Bachner 354,033 

Watch, stop, J. Biiohner 364,0S1 

Water closet, A, F. Blesoh 364,3™ 

Water aloeetoverflowp]pe,S,llfunniann,.,,.,.... 364, l.^'f 

water closet, ship's, F.W.Croat 361,803 

Water meter, piston, G. s. Follanabee 354,124 

Water ar other pipes,, device for scraping or 

cleansing, C . R. Kear 354,473 

Weaner, calf , C. K. Hubbard 3M,(40 

Wheel. See Car wheel. 

Wheel. F, W, Hubbard .354,474 

Whip snap, C. M. Comstock.... :i64,3;i5 

Wick tube for 1 1 burners, W.H.Wilder 351,3(i7 

Winding machine, H. WInterwerber. . . ., 351.2iJ5 

Windmill gearing, G. H, Pattison (r) 10,739 

Window for Uchtlug basements, vaults, etc., inci- 
dence, 1. Scboeuberg. ,,.,., 354,440 

Wire stretcher, *. B. Graham a5M09 

Wire stretcher, C. Laufer 304,1.« 

Woal washer, V.G.& A. C. Sargent 354,240 



'^bvettf^einenisi. 



Inatijel'nsre, each Inaerilon • 
Back PRge, eneh iiiMenldii 



• - 95 cents Hline> 

• ■ Sl.UOii line. 



Tile above are charges per agate line— about eight 
words per Hue, This naclce shows the width of the line, 
and U&?t in agate type. Etigras^ings mayhead adver* 
tIsementA at the same rate per agat^: line, by measure- 
ment, as the letter presa. Advertisements must ke 
received a*, publlcatlan office ae earl yaa'l'hursday morn- 
ing to appear In next Issue, 



GET THE BEST AND CHEAPEST 




(CincinnAtt, Ohio, U. S, A,> 
Exelnstve Agents and ImporterB forthe United StstM 
of the 

PERIN BAND SAW BLADES, 

Warranted auperioTtonllothera I iKinalltr, finlekt 
uiiiloruiiiy ot tfmiiei^, and gpiieml ilDi'nbllUT< 
One Periii !<nw outwears three ordinary aawa. 

t^liinufiLctarei'if iti Plaiiiiig Iflncbliiea nbd 
otber Paient Wood Warklng illncbluerT^ 



SEBASTIAN, MAY& GO'S 

ilXllUfldPower 

Drill Presses, Chucks, TJrills, 
Dogs^^nd machinists' and atna-^ 
tcurs' outfits, jLa(hfS on iriat^ '■ 
CataloKVes mailfrd on application 
165 W. ^d SCi*> CiuciuoAti. '" 





ROCKDRILLS 

AlK CUHPRXSSORS, 

BOILERS, HOISTS, 

ANn 

mini mm m.4chiaert. 

ftetid far lUnfltAtvd CkUIokhB- 

ingsrsoU Boct Drill Co„ 

10 PARE PLACE, N. T. 



SCIOPTK!ONfi, MAGIC LANTEK> SLIDKS 

MARCY^ ELECTRIC IW. 

LIME LIGHT made >aet. Semi> fob CtEcuLAReL 
L. J* 3lAltCV, 1G04 Cbcstnitl St., Fhtlnfln^ 



LJAta fieut. 

BridjE^ Stcjre >»o. 1^ 
Frankfort Street, N, Y, 




EXCELLENT Br.ACK COPTEg of anvtUn^ ^tTtm^ or 
dmwn with ajiy Pen {or Tyije_\V riter) by tbe Patent 

Only etjualled by 
Llt^io^raphy. 

____^____ ^_ Specimens Free. 

AuTOC!OPYiaT"Co., 3 Thomas Street, Kew Yort» 



a^rOr'um wiin a-n^ i^en ^<>i i j^ t^e ivti 

AUTOCOPYIST 




Wfjlev 



Hu^sell nifsr Co*, Greenflelil, IKTaHB* 



DESIGNS. 

Badge plu, Tarsch&Lee 17,084 

Bauquet balder, H. Tappan IT.OZS 



TRADE MARKS. 

Beer, hottlled. Southern Brewing Company „ — Xi^SSb 

Bitters, Mearher Bros. A Co - lS.Sn 

Cheese, A.G.Turner 13,888 

Cigars,'3iill8 Cigar Company... ,,.,,.,,.....,.-.. — l;i,8gl 

Calogne, FleminK Bros 1*6*3 

Colors, plKment, Badische Anllin £. Sada-Fahrlli.. . 13,871 
DrawlnK muterial and Instruments. S. G. Soit., 

njann... 13,65" 

DyeatutTrt or coloring matters, Badische Anil in & 

Soda.J-abrllt 13,810 

Rartbenwnre and china, Doultcn &- Co 13,890 

Florida water, McKesson 4 Robblns 13,818 

Flour, wheat, Reld, Murdocli 4 Jlscher. , . 13,S78 

Medical driiKS, Badische AnlUn & Soda-Fabrik.. . . 13,?!2 

Medicinal preparation, Keasbey & Mattison. . ' 13.S<i6 

Mica, Arctic Mica Company iUfSi 

Oil, lltuiBln^itinK, Lombard, Aytes !l Oompany,...'. 13,8W 
Petroleum, refined, Lombard, Ayres A Company... 1S,S75 

Pillows, 8. Alnswortl) - • • 13,808 

Preserved fruits, Vf. T. Colcmiui A Co ,. . 13,863 

Kemedy for dyspepsia and water brash, H, J- 

Muschert 13,866 

Salve o r ointment for the cure o f catarrh and kin- 
dred ailments, E. A.Talbot IS.SSS 

Throat and lung diaeasea, cure for, L. B. Jones.... 13.6M 
Tin plates, lerne plates, and hlaek Plates, W. Gll- 

bertsoniCo 13,87-1 

Tobacco, plUK, R. A. Pbtterson A Co U,882 

Tobacco, plup, Tinsley Tobacco Company.......... ISjaff? 

Tobacco, smoking, C. B. garrazln 11^688 

Woolen dreB8£ood, cloakinjts, sbawlsv tweeda, and 
fancy woolens, Jordan, Marsh i Co 13,881 



FIRE.— A LECTURE BY J. C, HOADLEY, 
delivered in the Sibley <lollCite course.— Tlie practical 
sources of useful arti^ciEil heat. Useful flre-Bustaininff 
s-ubfliances. Carbon and hydrogen. Diirerence between 
quantity of heat and tempei-ature. Bpeclflc heat, waste 
trotn banked flrej,. Effect of nitrof^en in retarding oom- 
bostlon. Boiler heating. Heat carried away by aue 
j^iises- J&Cect of boiler pressure upon quantity of beat 
carried away by Hue gaaes. With numerous tables and 
disBHuns, Cuntiiined in rictEKTiFio AMEKtCAN snp- 
!>LEHENr, No. .'i'KI, Price 10 cents. To be had at tills 
office and froiu all newsdf^alerg. 







FREK TO F-AnM' FLneColoredtTij^fcTibf! of tuft 
imtriariii Ihe Ardent L«lf;a Room in wbkti tlH 
(ii^t ]i3Li^in N- America wnahtld. A 1*0 ] u Fge I llua- 
trntfld CiilaloFtl* fir.Mftftonic huf-kt And pOrtJ^witn 

b.-|tLnrri WTlMfl- Alao Oflfef Of firfltfljlH buvElttOt. 

re^HtN^areofapurionabMlffl. REDDING A CO,* 
icFutlilifitl ftod liaoiifBcliiMlljTai Broadway. Ntsw Yd ri, 



llllf Fy^iny A (^ocd^ thor<iu^hl7 wurked la Ku- 
in Ten I lUHv topebrenterpHshi^LoMonMer- 
chaatfuow in N* YJ* Bradehea id Manchestert Llver- 
POOU etc Addiees ^' Z," P* O. Box 17:*, New Yort. 



CATALOCUEl FREI 



70 ANV 



S^^tftOO, 








Punching Presses 

DIESMIDDTREBTDOIS 

ttHirf HrTAt- OHlMlf 




Hraijch Office and Factory, 3TO Center Street, New Tork, 



A PrlDted cop7 Of the aPMlflcatlooa and drawlog of 
aD7 patent In tbe foregoing ll^t,, alao of aoy patent 
Issued slnott 18S6. will be fumlaheid from this office for 25 
cents, lu ordering please state tbe nnmber and date 
of the pateot desired, aod remit tc Mnnn & Co., 3^ 
Broadway, NewTork. Wealsof urnlsh copies nf palenta 
grauted prtor to 1866: but at iDCfeaeed cost, as the 
speclflcatloosi oot being prtnted, moBt be o*p[ed by 
hand. 

CmiRdinn '"^teiils oAT i^ow be obtalobc) by the 
Inventars Ar^^y Af th«iiveatioaft oamed ^d the fore- 
eoJDgllBt^at a cost of ^40<«cb. For full iDatroctlons 
address Munn ii. Co., 361 Broad way. New YorlE^ Otber 
foreign pateDts \lxlj also be obtained. 




Print Your Own Cards ! 

PreistS. Circular stae 13. K^wspapersliefi*. 
Type eettldt' easy^ printed directlimn. Send 
^fttamp&forllf't preyaes, type^etCr, tofactyry. 



TEST REC^R'DTNG APPARATUS.-- 

Description, by J. H. Wtckateed, or & oew testing Toa- 
chine.wfth autojrrnpblc recoMiln« apparatus, and an ex- 
VlanivtiOoOf lt!iiiiO(1e af •PerBtlon. Wit^ 4 engr«Ttnn. 
CoDialned Id *^c1katiptc amfBICAK SDppljlment. No. 
9:t^, Price 10 ceots. TobebadatthlsofQce audfrom 
alloewBdeaTera. 



£3ca.GO syi 



Of Arc Rod InCRDdeKreot I.tirhtiDg. 
Electric Light aoil Puwrr. 

Matorft. Dv amo*), ramp^i.aDd Battnrlen in all varieties. 

Flectrti-Dynanilcro.. '"^ Catler St.. Philadelpbl*. 
W.W. GriiKuzn* CuiiaulKitigElecirlcnl foffloeer. 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



^tmixiu ^mnitm. 



13 




RUBBER BELTING, PACKING, HOSE 

OMm( and I^atCcit Mannf actarers in the Vntied 8tate«o 

TULCA^MIZED RUBBER FABRICS 

For laecbaiilcal Fnrpows. 

A Specialty. 
BUBBER MATS, 

RUBBER MATTING 

AND STAIR TREADS 

NEW YORK BELTING & PACKING CO., 15 PABK BOW, N. T. 

J«as H. Chlkveb, TreiB-, Bra«chca : 187 Lake St.. ChlciMt*; SOS Cbestnut St., Phlla. 52 Sumnier St., BoBton. 
J. D. CRKEVEK. Den'y Trea.^ 






TheTecl 



WITIIBBBV, RUG<i & HlCUARDSON. Maimtucturera 
of Patent ^Vflod WorkltiB Mi3.<;hln.er. ot every dea-CTtp- 
tion, FaclLltiea unsurpassed. Shop tormerlj' occupied 
t>T R- Ball ^ Co., Worcester^ Maaa. Send tDi i;ataLoKue. 



Containing . 
Latest.^ inoyt Imp 
Chemical Teeltn<J 
ID the Arts and _ 
Gernmn at Dr*. Wfl 
.Iftcobaetu Ktiller, ana 
William T. Brnnnt, Oral 
CoHtKO of KUlena^ Prul_ 
D. ^Hcid.). Sccretiiry of i 
de]p1iia» authtir ot ** Gal^ao 
luat rated by T^jenj^ravlnfiAH ifTl 
I^tdOt closely prlnteJ^ ctmtalnil 
andaffrtat variety of juatter. ETel 
let olotli, gilu Price l^i, frei of 1 
thtworJcL 

t^fA circular of 33 paqei, showing rfte / 
tehtt of this jmpor^nr Book^ stnt mp moC 
to an^f WW In any part e/ th* IFbrtii lofto fl 

HENRY CAREY BAIRD 

laduatriat PobllHherSf Bookaellere^ and Imfortera, 
811) WnJnot 8t., PbUudelphlo, Pa«, tJ. d, A. 



Q JB^ K K B L ^-^ ^* H^ILHES, 



BUFFALO. X.Y, 







iJf.lSHDRFiSic'^WA'! 



jMrfWM." 77i8 AnKrlosn Writing 

Uafhine Co., Hsrtfonf, Conn.; 

Nsw York Ofr,:e, S37 Broadwsi. 



ElEPTDlPill Bilwttrtt P.ThompaoD. Sallclt«r 
CLEw InluALl of I'^tectncHl P«tent3.3Beeliman 
Street, Write fcjr testimonials aD:^iiistructi0D4. 



EAILWAY AHD STEAM FITTEKS' SUPPLIES 

Kue's Little Giant Injector. 

SCREW JACKS. STtJKTBVANT BLOWERS, 4c. 
.UIHN i<. UKQl'MART, 4<i Cortlnndt St., N. Y. 



COLD A8 A CAUSE OF DEAFNESS.— A 

eliort but; oomprebeDslvepAp^rby l>r The«dore GrUSn, 
&DBwerlD9 the two imiHinanr ^ue&tiODs; How ean the 
lTijuii*UB effects Af c*ldupon the ears be p»TODtedVaDd 
secondly. H»w can they t>e cured after they bavebeea 
developed? Contatned Id SritNTinc AMbhicAn^ Sltp^ 
PLELMKNT. No. *ZB!i. Price 10 •ents. To be had at CMa 
«ffloe »id from ail ziewadealera. 



"^"^ CHARTER'S 

GlSEilL 

Warrantea eaoal to 
liny in Powerana Econo- 
my, and superior to alJ 
in ^impUcL^, and Com., 
pnctno^s. GLre^ an Iin- 
Inilse at ^very RevoJa- 
tSutl, 

ChICahO A&EKT: 

H. H. Latham. 
166 Munr*e Street. 
NEW Yoiiic age;;!; 
ZeJl EDftmeerlDg Co., 112 Uberty Street. 

Williams & Orton Mfg. Co., 

STERLING, ILL. 




NAUTICAL ARENA, OR AQUATIC 

Theater.— Deaeriptlon and illnstrattonfi of a novel place 
of amusement ireoentlr constructed Id Paris, tti serve as 
a cLreus in wlnter^and a swimming liatli In stincmer* 
Contained in scientific AMEttirAN s^^PI-■KME^T, No. 
5:tll* Frlc^ 10 <:eDts. To be bad at thl^ office and from 
all new3dealera« 



Standard Typewriter. 

The RemlnKton 
Typewriter has 
fttooo every te£jt,and 
we are odmn^ every 
improvement, bow, 
ever costly^ that can 
increaae ita edici- 
ency* Buy It with 
the privtlese ot re- 
turning nnbroicen 
Within SO daya CO. 
D.^idf not flt>flohitel7 
aatiefactory in 
erery respect- 
PtntL PABTICCXHABa UM(Br APPUCATION. 

Wyckoff» Sd&mans & Benedict^ 

339 BROADWAY, HEW YORK. 




L^itimate 
artists* an d 
- ^^-«=, draUghts- 
inen\'* tool. Franklin Institute Silver 
Mcclal. 1S85. Ecf^tiumixea time, Uae 
in black and -white, nnd water coKus. 
Source of aX^^HT^t und remunerative 
empl^^ynient In the arts. 
r- AIR HR17!*1I Mr«, CO,, 
07 >nH«au ^U, Kocklordp ILL 



AIR BRUSH, 






Addresafl.L. 



SHEPARD'8 NEW seo 
Strtv-CaUlng Foot Lath«. 

Kiiot and I'ower Lathea,i;)rii1 
Presses, Scroll-saw Aiiach- 
menlB, Cbuck:JT Mandrels, Twist 
DrDlfl.ncga, C«lt^er«, etc. 

Ijithea on trial, liatbes on 
payment. 

Send far oatalueue of Outfits 
for Amateurs tr Artisans^ 



Agent) l34E.2d8t.,(HncLiuiktuO. 



PULLEYS, HANGERS, ^«°^^^^:^^:^'cdw^^'^^' 
FRICTION clutches! ^a "^i^^' ggg,^!?'. -b-. 



JCJ/\^..WWY6Y9H For 
^ Jtet^ H&nfUine 

iVr*' Sendior 1 1 

V^A Olrcalans.l I 



HARRISON CONVEYOR! 

6raln, Coal, Sanii,Cla!i Jan Birk, Cinders, Ores, Seeds,&c. 



^^^.1 BORDEN, SELLECK & CO.,i 



Ma^:'r^«,}Chicago, IlL 



ICE & REFRIGERATING 



Mich in 65. York Pa- 
tent. VUKK niFG. 
CO., York, Pa. 




P.O.Box 148, 




ARTESIAN 

Wdlls, on and Goa Wells, drilled 
by contract to any dfipth, from IM 
toSOWfeet. We also manulactart 
ajid Fuyiish ererything required 
to drill and c^rapiece same. Port- 
able Hor«e Power aad Afounted 
Steam Drilling Machines tor 100 to 
eiXtrc. Send&centaforiiiiiEtrated 
catnlo^e. • 
Pier ce W« 1 1 ExcKTAtorC o. 




STEAM ENGINES. 

Horizontal and Vertical. 

j)redK<nK lUnchtneiT' 
Floor. Powder, Slnte nnd 
Flint Mill niaebineiy, Tur- 
bine Water Wheela, 

TorkUfgCo.,Toii,Pa, U.S.A. 



RADII OF CURVATtTRB GEOMETEI 

lallr ooDaidered, Ky Prof. C. llaoCord, Sc.D.—Ei plana, 
tionof a new method of deteraninine the radii of curra- 
tnre of many plane curves byvpry simple graphic con- 
^tnictlon.the vro[>oact^ mode of op^rAtlon bemff based 
upon the funiiameotal ideaH r,f rcisardinif a line asffen- 
erated by the motion of [i point, the tanf^ent as ttie di- 
rection of that motionat aifiven Instant, and the normal 
also as a line In motion. With li tlKures. Contained in 
Scientific /Vmshican- Si7i'i'i.i:>it;NTS. Noa. .island 
Ji.lS. Ten cents etich. To be had at this office and 
from lUl newsdealers. 



ByOvi(KQtriBSips^ae£5J< 






EVERT USER OF KICHIKERT 

SHOITLD lEABN 

How to Use Loose Pulleys. 

tTaeful Inftirmation on this subject 
Is glTCn in onr*' Catalogue No. 55." 
^ent free to any address. 
TAN DoJEBir 4Tirr, Clnolnaatl. O, 



SPECIAL MACHINERY 
For Grinding and Polishing | 

Unaafattnred by Tbt Som«nworth nieblne Co., 

154 JjUke Street, CHICAGO. 

Write for Clrculara. 



SHIELDS & BROWN 

j!ft]r»^W<*tif*rt and 5*?* /Vpfjrfrfor* of 




For BOILERS and STEAM PIPES 

KedDce* <ToBAeni»Ll4ii #f 9t*mm. 

IFOR G-A.B A.1^T> ^VSTATKR PIPES. 

Prevents SvteatlnKand Freeilng. 
Xhft Beat Nan-CdadnctaT of Heat ksd C«ld In the World 

£«kI tor illnitTAttd ^eKTiptiv« Cimkr, ud uum Lhlt ppip«. 

143 Worth Street, New York. 

78 and 80 Lake Street, Chtoaico. 



XPERIMENTAtelf'"- 

lflf(JKIVSK(t*Ln.^M«ntion .Ms ptpaj 




Conn. 

, J^TOOOflOD 

: tPSSES PAID IN 67 YEAR$_^58,750]O0Q 
KMt snd Strana«Bt CompaPT* 
J.GooDxow. Bect^i_ „ 
WW. B.ci.AiuE.AMt.Staat'f 






PB£a^, 



BAIjI. UNIPOIiAR Sypttm of Electric LlfflitlDBli 
clieape^t and lje»t tor Arc or Ineandqpcent. For tDfo> 
matlon, vunrante^SHqnd estimates, address 

KOVEI^TV Ei.ECTltlU €<»., , , 

dill Scr T.ociiHt Stft., Phllndelpblv. 



TO THE STEEL IllANUFACTVlCEUS 
OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMBKICA. 

IJiiTED States If AW DupARTMENr. I 
WAfiHiNGTON, D. C.> Aoff. 21, 1S8G. \ 

The atteotlon of all steel manufacturers of the United 
3t£.t«»ig hereby invited to the requirementfl of the Navy 
Department iD the way of anmor-plates and heavy gun 
for(zln^3, for tlie proaeeuii()n yf work already authorized 
Ijy Conjcreea* 

Thin advertisement iDVltes all domestic mnnufactur^ 
er&of &teel to specify^ in competition with each other, 
upi>n wtiat termfi they will en^a^e to prepare for the 
pr{}duct1on of and prodnce thelurKirif^H and arirtor-plato 
reouired for modern ordnance and krrnored sbipfl, and do 
Olds will heconaidered except Aiich as en^a>rfi *" P"?duce 
wIthiD the United St^tea either all the ^un-steel or all 
the armoT-piate (or hoth> specified in this adTertlse^ 
merits nor will any lt>id l>e accefjt&d unless accompanied 
b? evidence satisfactory to the Department ttiat too 
bidder la in pcjssession of, or lia^ made actual piovision 
for, a plant adequate for its tuJflUnient. 

Bids are liei-eby invited for supplylii)^ this Department 
with the under-mentioned material : 

About 1^310 tons of Kteel irun-forpin^Rj of which about 
323 toi)3 will be for puns of six inches ealiber» 70 tons 
foT Kuns of elitht ttiches caliber^ and VHi tons for calib^TB 
between ten inches and twelve inches (hoth Inclusive)- 

These forKln^s arc to be delivered roufih hored and 
turned, and ^hen in that state the heaviest forfhnj? 
which enters'lnto tbe c<jnatruction of a *tUQ of each or 
tbe desired calihers will be ahout as follows: 

6-lnch rtjitons* 



BIC OFFER. 



To inrroducethemn we 

' wiU Give Away* 1>4J00 

Self-Operating Wa^hinjz Machines. If you want 

I one send us your rtime, P^ O- and eipre&s ofiiee 

at once. The Naiioiial Co.* '^3 l>ey i^t., N,T* 



ICE-BOATS — THEIR, CONSTRUCTION 

and mana^euent' With ^rcrKInc drawing, 'details, and 

" " n ■ - - ' 



_ . 1 n lJ.H4iJ 1 ■u'lr^nu^pq . HrJJU 

Four eokravinffs, ahontnL! mode of 

construction. _^ Views of the two f flfit^fit Ic^-saulng boat^ 



directions tn full. 



used on tbe HudsoD river la winter By H. A, Horsfall, 
M*E. Contained in ScrFiNTJt'i^r AMEHiCAlf ScTPLK^ 
>CENT, 1 . Tbe same □umbei' also ooDtalns the mle^ and 
rej^nlatlong for tbe formation Of Ice-bost clabs^ tlxe Mil* 
ing and management of Ice-boatB. t'rice lO cents* 



E 



IIP ABC (^o»^ JiiTtfiittniiB thoroughly worked 
UnOrt by enterprising London Merebant now 
in New York. Also other business carefuliy attend- 
ed to. **2!," P. O. Boi 7(3, N. Y* City. 



I New Catalogue of Valuable Papers 

eontaitnedln aciK.MTiyiCAMiiiBiCiS SUPPtEMsiiTi sent 
■frttof chargexo anyEiddress. 

MTNN & CO.. .S6J Broadway. N Y 

PI I ^P^i InslantieUet.I'InBKmTeikiidneTer 
I ■■ E^Plt returns. Noindellcac7. ^'eith«r 
linlle» pur^, salve or enppoHitory. Liver, kidnsr 
and ttllbiiwol trot] hit::— ts]>toial]y constipation— cur- 
ed illte mapic. SulTfrffrK H-ill learn of aflimplewme^tf 
tree, by ftddre?sing, J, H. HEKVES, IShnssau St.,M.Tr 



CONCRETE. —BY JOHN SLATER. B.A. 

—A paper on tbe means to be adopted In. order to render 
bullcjlc^^satable, audon tbe use of eonereteasa mate* 
rial Tor that pur[>ikse. Elarly use of concrete aa a bnlld- 
lUK material. Value of concrete* MaterJols of which 
concrete i^ corowsed. rement concrete- London eon- 
crete, Artiilcial aiones. Concrete buildings- i ontaLn-' 
ed In J^ciENTi^ir AM^^tIcA^ Stltpplk^iemi-. >'o* 5311- 
iPrice 10 ceuts- To be bad at this office and from all 
newsdealers^ 



COURTSHIP A MARRIAGE 
Wonderful Secrets Revelation sand 
BisroverLsH for Married or Single, et- 
' curinp E«aUb, Wealth and Happiness 



^L toall. TbisHan'dHCTneBook.of 16C PS^GES 



10 *^ flK " 

lOM" ^tSf " 

y^ " ViH " 

All these forpin^smust be delivered within the follow- 
ing times from the closing of a contract, viK.: 

For (> Inch Kuns, 2i^ within o£]e year, and tbe remainder 
within 18 montbs. 

Por S inch guns, witbin two years. 

For 10 Inch and larger jjutis, within ^>s rears- 

Preference will be Kiven for earJier deliveries- 

AlsOi about 4,500 tons cjf ateel armor- plates, to he of the 
best material and manufacture, shaped accurately after 
patterns to fit tbe form of each vessel for which intended* 
and of such sl^es as may be required, varying aomewhut 
as follows: 

SO feet by ft feet by 12 Inches f biclc. 

17^ feet bj *; feet by 17 inches tbick- 



ll>i feet by AH, feet bv « inches thlcfc* 
Tfier " ' " -f 



lere will also t>e tbfnaer plutta. 

For Information concernlnir eihapea and weights of the 
gun Jtorgings and armor-platen, what parts must be 
manufactured Insets, time of delivery of each set, the 
chemical, physical, and halliatic tests, Vrhlch the metal 
must sustain in eacb case, and for all other pArticulare^ 
apply to tbe Chief of Bureau of Ordsnce, Nttvy Depart- 
ment, Washington, 1>. C* 

Each bid upon armor-platemust specify the time with- 
in which the bidder will engage to make delivery; and 
preference will be given to earliest proposed deliveriea. 

Proposals must be in duplicate, sealed and flddreeeed 
to the Secretary of tbe >;avy, I^avy Department* Wash* 
ington^ D. C, tbe envelopes Indorsed "Proposal Xor 
steel anin-forirings and armor-" 

They will be received atthe Vavy Department iin til 12 
o*cloctM-on tbe Idtb day of December^ ISSe, at which 
hour the opening of the bide wlU take place- 

Tbe right is reserved to waive defects in the form of^ 
and to reject any or all bids. 

Ten per cent, of the contract price will be retained 
from the payment for each article deliveredt until tbe 
contract, as far as relates to tuticlea of that class, shall 
nave been completed* 

Separate bids may be submitted for rhe gun steel and 
for thearjtior, if any manulacturer so desires^ but bids 
covctIdr both will receive preference, other thlnga belhig 
e^iuaL 

Bids will be compared in two classes* 

First. Gun Forginga, 

jS^cond* Armor-plflte- 

And the total sum for which, and the time within 
TFhlch the whole of tbe material covered by each class 
will be produced and delivered will be alone considered- 
WILLIAM C- WHITNEY, 

Storetary nf tlit Nat^. 

XOTICE. 
NAVT 1>EPaHTiMKNT, 

WA&HLSGTON, NtywTiHterQ, 1S8G- 

The time fixed by tbe f{>regoing advertisement, dated 
August 21, iSWJt for receiving piopo*ala for steel gun* 
forglnj^s and armor^pjatee. viz.: December 10, 1686, Is ex- 
tended to 13 o'clock noon. March 15, iSftT* at wLlcn hour 
the openlDK of the bids w^ii tate p\ace. 

WILLIAM C- WHITNET* 

Secretary a/ tJi^ Navv* 



TIMBER 

GAINING 
MACHINE. 




i-HE CHEAPEST AND BEST 




© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



H 



^mnixiU ^mtttuu. 



^^bvctiwemeniB. 



• 73 centB^a Hue. 



ioftide 1>BE«, each iufttniqn j..j 

Back Paffe^ each iimerilon * * - 9l*(MJ a hue. 

The above are charges per agAte Ime— about eight 
word^ per Jine- Q'hit notice shoifft tbe width of ilio Uae, | 
and Is set in H^ate type. Enfrravinge maj head adver- ■. 
t1?emence ai the itanie rate per a>race Llne^ hr meaaure- 
njf^nt, as the letter press. AdTertlsemeuta must b« 
rsceiTedat pubtication o^ce afl oai); 06 Thundaj mom- 
inK tu appear In next ia^u«. 



STEREOPTICONS. 

Our Petroleum Lanterns have the 
finest lenses and the lamps are un- 
rivaled for piwerful whU« light 
Choice c»llecti»n of views 
colored and pluin. 

Sent) for Catalogue to 

QUEEN&CO. s; 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. > 

9it4 CheDtttDt Street. 







■■■"""^AVHEELEaS^l'tJNT 'SSfQQl^ piLLER 

[jR.^lNilG'S LiTMOCE:'; IlLlGATE j^Al 
LiTHOGEN Primer., WOOD sta.in£ 
;.,sii_e:x: ri-iNTAf^D tei-dspar. 



PA MPHLET &IV)MG OIHEctlOtiS fOR^FINISHIUS HARP WOOD FR£E TQ MiYIKDORESS 



Alfred R. Wallace, LL.D. 

The well Known English NaturaJist, will leeture In the 
Uolted States durtne the VVioter and Spring. 

For prospectus of let'tures and t^rog. application 
muat be sinde to hie Agent, It. W. WIljl^IAnSi 
\tSS Wnafainstsn iStreet, lta*Unt, Bituw. 



FOR SAX.K. 

state, Oannty, and Territorial Vigbte In Ths Familr 
BmergencT Medicine Chest ; or wlirbe given to reliable 
flnufl on Royaltr- Caoada for sale In a Inmp. See cat 
and deserlpttLin In HoiB^TtFtc A MiCBi<!Ai:, Hot. ai, we. 
Address »r. T. J. HL'TTIIN, 

College ol Plijalclans and SnTeeODB, 

chk;a0O, ill. 



$10.00 to $50,001 



night. A 
^ht and pro- 
fitable bus! 



nesB. Mntrtc lisnternsand Views ot popular &ub- 
jectB. Catalogues on applloatlon. Fart 1 Optical, ^ 
Mat^ieTnatical, ^ JMeteorolMrlcal, 4 Magic X,anterDe, etc. 



Catalogues on applloatlon. 
Li^TTL^iatlcal, ^ JMeteorolMTlcal, 4 AU,exv .>.K.,...v^x,.„ ^..v 
ftIAKA!4^];,sS MBdlsan Street, Cfaicngo, III. 



ICE HOUSE AND COLD BOOM.— BY a 

G. HataeW. With directions ItiT constmctlon. Four 
engrsTlnRB. Contained In scientifio amebioan StfP- 
I'l.KME.sT. 3n. I 'lice '.0 cents. Tobeluidat this omce 
and ct ull newsdealers. 



MAGIC LANTERNS 



Anil STEREOPTICONS^ *n prloei^ Yievn ILastntloj 
ervjr sutijMl Ibr PUBLIC EXHIBITIONS, ett. 

0:^ A jtfT^Ataitc huMinftt fitr.aman ieit\ d twaaU eapilai. Aln, 
LaDtcTDB for HftMr Annifteroenl. 146 pufl C^taloinie *■«. 

MCALLISTER, Ufe. optidu. 49 Nassau 5t.,N.Y. 



BIbb't Celebrated Original 

BALTIHOKS 

FIBEf LACE HEATEBS, 

To w^rdl upper uqd lowe r r(K>me. 

Posl ^tovcD in t^e worl4i. 

B.C. BIBB A SON 

HMUtdrr Office Atiii ftalgnrrMiinn 

«0 ud 41 Lipht atnet, 

BaillBotf , Ad. 



Barnes' P at. Fool ^ Hand Pflwe 

^OiJ^cn tj i j e t Jit n.-y . «xs. 

Conlroctora and Btdldet^. (XtthietllalteL'B and 
Jobber* In Wood or Metal, yrho, 
have np ffteam power, oiui, by uei^ 
hig outilte of these machine, bid 
lower and laTe more nwney than 
br ftay other means for ckiing their 
worV. Solii on trial. lilumtriited 
CatalocrnoFRBE. 

W.F.aJOHHURHESCO., , 

AdJret IflflBflnbr St, Sockford. I 



H. W. JOHNS' 

Corded Sheathing. 

A ni*-Froo{ Ho^Onlutlac Bcw^ (n 

HEATER AND STEAM PIPES 

IN CBLLtBft >IOk 



H. W. JOHNS' 
'A^B'ESrTOS' 

Stove & Furnace Cement 



A iSra ftbd scSd proof material f^r oemfiDtlDg 

and repairisg joints ID Be*ten« Fur- 

Dtcea, Stoveftt BaDges. etc. 

FREPAAKD B£&DT FOR na%. 



H. W. JOHNS MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
87 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

— CHICAGO. — — PHILADELPHIA. — " — LONDOM. — 

SOI.E MANnFACTDBEBS OF 

H. W. JOHMB- ABB^tOfl UQUIA PAINT8. ASBKSTOS SOOFINO. STKAM PIPB AND BOILZB 

007BBIH08. STXAU PACStNa t IS£ A WAIKB PROOF SHEATBINa, 

PLASTIC ST07E-LININ*. Etc. 

l^'PAMPBLBTOlf STBAMSAeitftt 4^D FtRB-PROOF MATSRIALS.' FRSS BT MAIL. 




BIUJV^^KIV^ to K, A J. 

free to aur addresB. 




BEFORE YOU BUY A BICYCLE 

Bend stamp to A.. 'W. SXJMr, Dortou, 
Ohio. forllluBtrated Price List OINSW 



(and Sbcond-Hanp MACrHHtMS. 

„ "repatred and nlokaled. B»coK» 

BICYCLES, Ciuns and BevolTers taken la exelttmge, 



BttTOlea 





VIOUIH OUTFITS. 

I Conrietlng of TloMn Box, Bow, ana 
Teacher, sent to any 
Dart ct the Onlted 
States on 1 to S days* 
trial before bujlhg. 




lit *4, SSi„81{( ttBdSiiS each. t*nnA atmmvfor 

Beautlfni Illuiitrated K^naee Cataloguo at Tlotins. 
Gultara. Banjos. Comets, riutes. gtringa. etc Lowi 



Sw&ai 



Banjos, Comets, riutes, nr4pn,eto. Lowest 
Matt ordeni a specialty. C. W. STUKy, 



itriKl Stire.M, iMMtpitt Mt^ia. 



PROSPECTING MMR4L LANDS t> S^'EQAL, , , 
"■■ ^^■-^' ^-^ "ARTESIAN WELLS 



PENNSYLVANIA 
9IAM0N0 DRILL CO. 



BIKUSeCKO FA 

foh ALLiMMts or 
— KLCK tCRIMG.- 





BCIENTIFIO AilEHIOAII 8UPPLE- 
HIUTF, An; desired hack number of the acixNTif ic 
AHEBicAK BtTFPLBMEirT Can be had at this offloefor 
UioHits. Alsototwhadof uewsdaalera In oU parts of 




If youwlIlpntaJnkIN8 BROS. Va LVE on the worst place you can find, where yon 
cannot keep ather Valves tlght.ahd tf it Is not perf ectlytlgljt or doesnot hold Steam, Oils, Acids, 
orotherflulda lonKer than any other Valve. Ton may return it, and your money wUl be refunded 

To avoid liavaalrtOB, aee ttant Talvei mra itauped *'Jeiiklna Bma." 

JEMKINS BROS.y 

yi John St., New York. 13 »j«. Fanrtb St., Phila. 79 Kitbr t$i., Boston, 



ICE-HOUSE AND REFRIGERATOR. 

Dlirecttoos and LMmenslons for coDstructlotin with one I 
Illustration of cold house for preserring fruit from I 
season to season. The air is kept dry anti pure through- - 
out the year at atemperatnre of from 34^ to 36-. Con- 
tained In SoiemtikicA.mkbica\-9upi>leme>t No. 118. 
IMce 10 oenta. To he had at this office and of all news, 
teaiers. 



'\::^f '-pP '■■■ '-. 
COPP^IR TUBES, 



lauaiHdaaaeMiiaaiyua 

Mention this paper. 



'<^""^i\1JV,.'s'i.'i'r. 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR 

Gas. 

rYott. 



im I Lni^ni lunnL iiioi ii un 

ignefied Carbonic 

^* 0. BEDNLKE. 667 Broadyay, Wewl 




COPYING PAD,— HOWTO MAKE 

iDp. Practical directions 

t, and also the sjiillnelnk 

^__Bd'e: Tiow to apply the written 

o takeuf copLeA of the letter. 

flC A>IEH1IJ>N St^FPI-EMENT^ NO- 

centa. Kor sale a tills office add by all 
all parts of the coaati-y. 




l'r*vldeB4»e. It. I^Ct'iirliL^tJ SliiD»m«t'walk W«tft«mi(4ti4ii. 
OHeIhaI and Oiilr Jtii11dt>r M tbe 

H J| RRIS-CORLISS ENGINE 

WLtl Harrla' Pat. Improremetitfl* from 10 to 1,000 H. F 

ttend for copy En8ln««r'» anct ttteam User'i 

Manu?tF. By J« W. HJtl, M.£« Prlc«ftla2ft. 

HnmOlf TBU FA Pllt. 



SA WS Watjlfld 5»UU0 8ttwver« and W 1 W tt 
-*» " " liumbenn eo to mhig as their ^^* " O 
Afnil address for a copy ot EmerRon'a XM" Book ^ 
of »AWf», We are Bret to introduce Natictu- A 
A.1^ (lA^ fnr b«&MnK and teoiperlne !^awK 
Wwlth wADderful effect upon lnipr«Tinif their f 
fjuality atid t*ujttia«a8> enabUag ua to reduce vw 
pi-ic«8. Address _ 

SEnElldON* S$ltIITH 6l, CO. (Md.), A 
Beavei- Palla. Pa* *> 



AQUA PUBA 



SUPPLIES PROM 

HYDRANT PRKSSUBE 
the cheapest-power Itnown . 
Invaluable for blowlnK 
Church Orfcans. running 
PrlBting PressH, Smiimjj 
Jifachtt»J i/& HOasfhotctt, 
TumtnE Lathes, SoroU 
Saws, Urlndstopes. Coffee 
.Mills, vantage Maebines. 
Feed Cutfers, JStsctrfc 
ttoWi, Elevators, etc. It 
needs little TooiD, no iiriiig 
up. fuel, asiies, repairs, en. 
^liieer. explosion, or deiiiy, 
no extra insurance.no coat 
bills. Is noiseless, neat, 
compact, steady; will work 
at any pressure ot water 
Bhove IS lb.; at *0 Ih, pres- 
sure has 4 -horse power, and 
capacity up to lO-horse 
power. Prices from 115 to t-%0. Send for clrcnlarto 
THE BACKUS WATER MOTOit CO., Newark, N. J. 




OF THB 

FOR I8Mr. 
The Holt Pspnlai SdcntiBc Paper In Ibe World. 

Only SS.Otta Ycnr,tncludtiiBl>e*ta«e. Weekly. 
;(2 Nunibt'Ta n. year. 

Thtit widely circutitted and splendidly lllustnited 
paper Ii pnbilBtied weekly. Every auraoer contains six* 
teen pagea of useful infoitnation and a lai^e number of 
original engntTlngs of new Inventions and discoveries, 
representing Ekigineirlng Works, Steam Miicbtnery 
Kew Inventions, Ifoveltles In Mechanics, ManufH^ctures, 
Chemistry, Klectrlcity Telegraphy, Pbotograp by. Archi- 
tecture, Agtlcnlture, Horticulture. Natural History, etc. 

AI) Clasaes of It'eaders find in the SCiBKTinc 
Ahibicut a popular rMum/of the best scientific ib- 
gMaintton of thedey; and tt la the aim of Che publtshera v 
to faeeent It In an attiectlre form, avoldlot! as much a* 
poe^hle abtftmae terms. To every IntellUrent mind, 
this Jioumal aff oids a constant stipply of Instructive 
reading. Itte promotive of knowledge and progress in 
every oonunnnlty where It circulates. 

Terma or SnbKrliittea.— One copy of the Scien- 
tific AMBKICiair will be sent for ont ^icat^^ numbers— 
postage prepaid, to any suhscribei' lu the United States 
orCanada,on receipt of three dollnvs by the pub- 
llahers-, six months, tt.Mi three months, $1.1X1, 

Clilba,~One extra copy of the Sciektific Ahebi- 
CANwllI be supplied gratis/or n»rs(!liuio/;tt««iiscrttiixj 
at faJU each ; additional copies at same proportionate 
rate. 

The safest way to remit Is by Postal Order, Draft, or 
Eipresa Money Order. Money carefully placed Ihside 
of envelopes, securely sealed, and correctly addressed* 
seldom goes astray, but Is at the sender's risk. Ad- 
dress all letters and make allorders.drafta. etc., pay- 
able to _ 

2>^-C73Sr3>T .5c CO., 

361 Broadway, New York. 



TELOCITY OP ICE BOATS, A COLLEa 

tion of Interesting letters to the editorof the Scikntifjc 
A.iiEHicAN on the question of the speed of Ics boats, de^ 
monstratlng how and why It is that these craft soil 
fsster than the wind which propels them. Illustrated 
with 10 explanatory diagrams. Contained in SnENriFio 
AMERicAH Si;pPi.EMKNT, No. 314, Price 10 cents. To 
be had at this offlca and from alt newsdealers. 



B-r KATtrfiE'B PBOCMBIS 

Tnrtll Water Made dean. 

Matter In ^Mapcnalon 
and UUOAtilO and 
r^enit-^olnble E' 
menta rentoved. 



WIf?E ROPE 




VOTtCR to Dsers of StfAm Pumps, 
We have receired following letter in 
regard to one of our No. 6^'L" {(IS) 
Steam Jet Pomps elevating lu; Inch pipe 
ot water more than 50 feet high: 

" L'ANSH, Mich., Feb. M, 1883. 
"Van Di'zen A Tipt, Cincinnati, O.: 

" Money txiuld nt)t 1)uy the Jet of us 
unless another could he had. I would 
not give yonr No, S " L " foru tTAQ pump, 
equal distance to raise. 
" W. A, Litchfield, Supt. Mich, lilate Co." 
We makeTen Slies of these Pumps. Prices 17 to tlh. 
tJapaeltieslOOto aUMOgallonsperhonr. state for what 
purpose wanted and send for Cataltigue of " Pumps.*' 
VAN UV/'KN tSt TIKT, Clucinunti, O. 




Address JOHN A. KOEBUNG S SONS. Manufactur- 
ers, Trenton, N. J. , or li; Lilierly Street. New ifork. 

"Wheels and Rope for conveying p^wer loijg distances. 
Send for circular. 



nlngltc 

tratnaa ranee. 

^ Engine. 

'as for country use. 



Scientific American Supplement. 

ThtB \h a separate atid dletlnct publlcatfoD from 
Tbk SciRNxiFio AU»^KicAN'. but Is UDiIoriD therewith 
Id alie, ever^ number comaiDinfc sixteen lar&^e l^a^ea. 
Thk SciRNTiPic Amkhican- Su^PLKMkNTUpuhl^alied 
week^iy.aiict luclude« a verywlde ranse %t c^ontentd. It 
presenta tbe moet recent papers by eminent writers in 
all rbe principal departments of Science and the 
Useful Art£, embracing BUlogy, #eclovT. JMlneralof^y. 
Natural History Geot^raphj, a rcb^Boloxy. Astronomy, 
Chetttlatry, Electiiclt^, LUht. Heat, Mechanical Engi- 
neering. SleaxD and Railway Epglneerin^, Mlnlug* 
Ship Building, Sluia« EOBluecrlng, Pbotogr^ipby, 
TecbnolOKy, Kanufactariug Industries, Sanitary En- 
gineering. Agtliculture. Hortlcniture^ liomestic Eoono* 
m7a Biography, Medicine, etc. A' voat amount of fresh 
and 'valuat>le Information pertaining to tbt^ae and allied 
subjects 1b giTen, the whole profusely tilueti-ated with 
engi-aTinga. 

rft< m«f i•m.vo^^ant dtiin^ertTia ITprk*. MecbEinlBniB. 
and Maoufacturesat home and abroad are represented 
and described In the Suppi.sxent. 

Price for the Si-ppi icmsnt for tie United States and 
Canada, $6.uoa year, or one copy •! the Scientific am- 
EniCA > and oue ci>py of the Suiplkmknt, both mailed 
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order. eipresA mone^ order, orchec^, 

ItlUNN Sc Co.. 361 Broadway, N. Y.* 
PubllBbere Scj&NTific Ameuicax. 

I'o KareifCM SMbncvibviM.— Under the fadUtleB of 
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TermA, when sent to forei^ countries, Cajiada excepted, 
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by postal or express mtneyorder. or dt-aft to order of 

MUKN & CO.,36i Broadway. KCw York, 



6o., 

cap. rr. -y. 



PRIIffTIIVG INKS. 

THB " Scientific American" is prin">d with CHAS 
ENEIT JOHNSON A CO. 'S IXK, TTirhandLom 
hard Sts., Philti,, and 47 Rose St., pop, Doano St,, N. Y, 



© 1887 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.